# American Institute of Mathematical Sciences

April  2005, 13(1): 219-237. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2005.13.219

## Multi-dimensional dynamical systems and Benford's Law

 1 Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand

Received  December 2003 Revised  November 2004 Published  March 2005

One-dimensional projections of (at least) almost all orbits of manymulti-dimensional dynamical systems are shown to follow Benford's law,i.e. their (base $b$) mantissa distribution is asymptotically logarithmic,typically for all bases $b$. As a generalization and unificationof known results it is proved that under a (generic) non-resonance conditionon $A\in \mathbb C^{d\times d}$, for every $z\in \mathbb C^d$ real and imaginary part of each non-trivialcomponent of $(A^nz)_{n\in N_0}$ and $(e^{At}z)_{t\ge 0}$ follow Benford's law. Also,Benford behavior is found to be ubiquitous for several classes of non-linear maps anddifferential equations. In particular, emergence of the logarithmic mantissadistribution turns out to be generic for complex analytic maps $T$ with $T(0)=0$, $|T'(0)|<1$.The results significantly extend known facts obtained by other, e.g. number-theoretical methods,and also generalize recent findings for one-dimensional systems.
Citation: Arno Berger. Multi-dimensional dynamical systems and Benford's Law. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2005, 13 (1) : 219-237. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2005.13.219
 [1] Lianfa He, Hongwen Zheng, Yujun Zhu. Shadowing in random dynamical systems. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2005, 12 (2) : 355-362. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2005.12.355 [2] Hiroshi Matano, Ken-Ichi Nakamura. The global attractor of semilinear parabolic equations on $S^1$. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 1997, 3 (1) : 1-24. doi: 10.3934/dcds.1997.3.1 [3] Noriaki Kawaguchi. Topological stability and shadowing of zero-dimensional dynamical systems. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2019, 39 (5) : 2743-2761. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2019115 [4] P.E. Kloeden, Desheng Li, Chengkui Zhong. Uniform attractors of periodic and asymptotically periodic dynamical systems. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2005, 12 (2) : 213-232. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2005.12.213 [5] Tohru Nakamura, Shuichi Kawashima. Viscous shock profile and singular limit for hyperbolic systems with Cattaneo's law. Kinetic & Related Models, 2018, 11 (4) : 795-819. doi: 10.3934/krm.2018032 [6] Nicolai Haydn, Sandro Vaienti. The limiting distribution and error terms for return times of dynamical systems. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2004, 10 (3) : 589-616. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2004.10.589 [7] Xinyuan Liao, Caidi Zhao, Shengfan Zhou. Compact uniform attractors for dissipative non-autonomous lattice dynamical systems. Communications on Pure & Applied Analysis, 2007, 6 (4) : 1087-1111. doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2007.6.1087 [8] Paul L. Salceanu. Robust uniform persistence in discrete and continuous dynamical systems using Lyapunov exponents. Mathematical Biosciences & Engineering, 2011, 8 (3) : 807-825. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2011.8.807 [9] Caidi Zhao, Shengfan Zhou. Compact uniform attractors for dissipative lattice dynamical systems with delays. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2008, 21 (2) : 643-663. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2008.21.643 [10] Michael Zgurovsky, Mark Gluzman, Nataliia Gorban, Pavlo Kasyanov, Liliia Paliichuk, Olha Khomenko. Uniform global attractors for non-autonomous dissipative dynamical systems. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - B, 2017, 22 (5) : 2053-2065. doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2017120 [11] Keonhee Lee, Kazumine Moriyasu, Kazuhiro Sakai. $C^1$-stable shadowing diffeomorphisms. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2008, 22 (3) : 683-697. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2008.22.683 [12] Tomás Caraballo, David Cheban. On the structure of the global attractor for non-autonomous dynamical systems with weak convergence. Communications on Pure & Applied Analysis, 2012, 11 (2) : 809-828. doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2012.11.809 [13] Giovanni Forni, Howard Masur, John Smillie. Bill Veech's contributions to dynamical systems. Journal of Modern Dynamics, 2019, 14: ⅴ-xxv. doi: 10.3934/jmd.2019v [14] Alicia Cordero, José Martínez Alfaro, Pura Vindel. Bott integrable Hamiltonian systems on $S^{2}\times S^{1}$. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2008, 22 (3) : 587-604. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2008.22.587 [15] Flavio Abdenur, Lorenzo J. Díaz. Pseudo-orbit shadowing in the $C^1$ topology. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2007, 17 (2) : 223-245. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2007.17.223 [16] Nicolai T. A. Haydn, Kasia Wasilewska. Limiting distribution and error terms for the number of visits to balls in non-uniformly hyperbolic dynamical systems. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2016, 36 (5) : 2585-2611. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2016.36.2585 [17] Sonja Hohloch, Silvia Sabatini, Daniele Sepe. From compact semi-toric systems to Hamiltonian $S^1$-spaces. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2015, 35 (1) : 247-281. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.247 [18] H. M. Hastings, S. Silberger, M. T. Weiss, Y. Wu. A twisted tensor product on symbolic dynamical systems and the Ashley's problem. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2003, 9 (3) : 549-558. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2003.9.549 [19] Cedric Galusinski, Serguei Zelik. Uniform Gevrey regularity for the attractor of a damped wave equation. Conference Publications, 2003, 2003 (Special) : 305-312. doi: 10.3934/proc.2003.2003.305 [20] Tomás Caraballo, David Cheban. On the structure of the global attractor for infinite-dimensional non-autonomous dynamical systems with weak convergence. Communications on Pure & Applied Analysis, 2013, 12 (1) : 281-302. doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2013.12.281

2018 Impact Factor: 1.143