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June  2014, 34(6): 2513-2533. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2014.34.2513

On the Hénon-Lane-Emden conjecture

1. 

Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G1, Canada

2. 

Department of Mathematics, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC Canada V6T 1Z2

Received  September 2012 Revised  May 2013 Published  December 2013

We consider Liouville-type theorems for the following Hénon-Lane-Emden system \begin{eqnarray*} \left\{ \begin{array}{lcl} -\Delta u&=& |x|^{a}v^p \ \ in\ \ \mathbb{R}^n,\\ -\Delta v&=& |x|^{b}u^q \ \ in\ \ \mathbb{R}^n, \end{array}\right. \end{eqnarray*} when $p,q \ge 1,$ $pq\neq1$, $a,b\ge0$. The main conjecture states that there is no non-trivial non-negative solution whenever $(p,q)$ is under the critical Sobolev hyperbola, i.e. $ \frac{n+a}{p+1}+\frac{n+b}{q+1}>{n-2}$. We show that this is indeed the case in dimension $n=3$ provided the solution is also assumed to be bounded, extending a result established recently by Phan-Souplet in the scalar case.
    Assuming stability of the solutions, we could then prove Liouville-type theorems in higher dimensions. For the scalar cases, albeit of second order ($a=b$ and $p=q$) or of fourth order ($a\ge 0=b$ and $p>1=q$), we show that for all dimensions $n\ge 3$ in the first case (resp., $n\ge 5$ in the second case), there is no positive solution with a finite Morse index, whenever $p$ is below the corresponding critical exponent, i.e $ 1< p < \frac{n+2+2a}{n-2}$ (resp., $ 1< p < \frac{n+4+2a}{n-4}$). Finally, we show that non-negative stable solutions of the full Hénon-Lane-Emden system are trivial provided \begin{equation*}\label{sysdim00} n < 2 + 2 (\frac{p(b+2)+a+2}{pq-1}) (\sqrt{\frac{pq(q+1)}{p+1}} + \sqrt{ \frac{pq(q+1)}{p+1} - \sqrt{\frac{pq(q+1)}{p+1}}}). \end{equation*}
Citation: Mostafa Fazly, Nassif Ghoussoub. On the Hénon-Lane-Emden conjecture. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2014, 34 (6) : 2513-2533. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2014.34.2513
References:
[1]

S. N. Amstrong and B. Sirakov, Nonexistence of positive supersolutions of elliptic equations via the maximum principle,, Comm. Partial Differential Equations, 36 (2011), 2011. doi: 10.1080/03605302.2010.534523. Google Scholar

[2]

M. F. Bidaut-Veron and H. Giacomini, A new dynamical approach of Emden-Fowler equations and systems,, Adv. Differential Equations, 15 (2010), 1033. Google Scholar

[3]

L. A. Caffarelli, B. Gidas and J. Spruck, Asymptotic symmetry and local behavior of semilinear elliptic equations with critical Sobolev growth,, Comm. Pure Appl. Math., 42 (1989), 271. doi: 10.1002/cpa.3160420304. Google Scholar

[4]

W. X. Chen and C. Li, Classification of solutions of some nonlinear elliptic equations,, Duke Math. J., 63 (1991), 615. doi: 10.1215/S0012-7094-91-06325-8. Google Scholar

[5]

C. Cowan, Liouville theorems for stable Lane-Emden systems and biharmonic problems,, Nonlinearity, 26 (2013), 2357. doi: 10.1088/0951-7715/26/8/2357. Google Scholar

[6]

C. Cowan and M. Fazly, On stable entire solutions of semi-linear elliptic equations with weights,, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., 140 (2012), 2003. doi: 10.1090/S0002-9939-2011-11351-0. Google Scholar

[7]

E. N. Dancer, Y. Du and Z. M. Guo, Finite Morse index solutions of an elliptic equation with supercritical exponent,, J. Diff. Equ., 250 (2011), 3281. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2011.02.005. Google Scholar

[8]

J. Davila, L. Dupaigne, K. Wang and J. Wei, A monotonicity formula and a Liouville-type theorem for a fourth order supercritical problem,, preprint, (2013). Google Scholar

[9]

Y. Du and Z. Guo, Finite Morse index solutions and asymptotics of weighted nonlinear elliptic equations,, Adv. Differential Equations, 18 (2013), 737. Google Scholar

[10]

P. Esposito, N. Ghoussoub and Y. Guo, Compactness along the branch of semistable and unstable solutions for an elliptic problem with a singular nonlinearity,, Comm. Pure Appl. Math., 60 (2007), 1731. doi: 10.1002/cpa.20189. Google Scholar

[11]

P. Esposito, N. Ghoussoub and Y. Guo, Mathematical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations Modeling Electrostatic MEMS,, Courant Lecture Notes in Mathematics, (2010). Google Scholar

[12]

A. Farina, On the classification of solutions of the Lane-Emden equation on unbounded domains of $\mathbbR^N$,, J. Math. Pures Appl. (9), 87 (2007), 537. doi: 10.1016/j.matpur.2007.03.001. Google Scholar

[13]

M. Fazly, Liouville type theorems for stable solutions of certain elliptic systems,, Advanced Nonlinear Studies, 12 (2012), 1. Google Scholar

[14]

M. Fazly and N. Ghoussoub, De Giorgi type results for elliptic systems,, Calc. Var. Partial Differential Equations, 47 (2013), 809. doi: 10.1007/s00526-012-0536-x. Google Scholar

[15]

B. Gidas, W. M. Ni and L. Nirenberg, Symmetry of positive solutions of nonlinear elliptic equations in $\mathbbR^N$,, in Mathematical Analysis and Applications, (1981), 369. Google Scholar

[16]

B. Gidas and J. Spruck, Global and local behavior of positive solutions of nonlinear elliptic equations,, Commun. Pure Appl. Math., 34 (1981), 525. doi: 10.1002/cpa.3160340406. Google Scholar

[17]

B. Gidas and J. Spruck, A priori bounds for positive solutions of nonlinear elliptic equations,, Comm. Partial Differential Equations, 6 (1981), 883. doi: 10.1080/03605308108820196. Google Scholar

[18]

W. Jeong and Y. Lee, Stable solutions and finite Morse index solutions of nonlinear elliptic equations with Hardy potential,, Nonlinear Analysis, 87 (2013), 126. doi: 10.1016/j.na.2013.04.007. Google Scholar

[19]

C.-S. Lin, A classification of solutions of a conformally invariant fourth order equation in $\mathbbR^N$,, Comment. Math. Helv., 73 (1998), 206. doi: 10.1007/s000140050052. Google Scholar

[20]

E. Mitidieri, Nonexistence of positive solutions of semilinear elliptic systems in $\mathbbR^N$,, Differential Integral Equations, 9 (1996), 465. Google Scholar

[21]

E. Mitidieri, A Rellich type identity and applications,, Comm. Partial Differential Equations, 18 (1993), 125. doi: 10.1080/03605309308820923. Google Scholar

[22]

E. Mitidieri and S. I. Pokhozhaev, A priori estimates and the absence of solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations and inequalities,, Tr. Mat. Inst. Steklova, 234 (2001), 1. Google Scholar

[23]

Q. H. Phan, Liouville-type theorems and bounds of solutions for Hardy-Hénon elliptic systems,, Adv. Diff. Equ., 17 (2012), 605. Google Scholar

[24]

Q. H. Phan and Ph. Souplet, Liouville-type theorems and bounds of solutions of Hardy-Hénon equations,, J. Diff. Equ., 252 (2012), 2544. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2011.09.022. Google Scholar

[25]

P. Poláčik, P. Quittner and Ph. Souplet, Singularity and decay estimates in superlinear problems via Liouville-type theorems. I. Elliptic equations and systems,, Duke Math. J., 139 (2007), 555. doi: 10.1215/S0012-7094-07-13935-8. Google Scholar

[26]

P. Pucci and J. Serrin, A general variational identity,, Indiana Univ. Math. J., 35 (1986), 681. doi: 10.1512/iumj.1986.35.35036. Google Scholar

[27]

P. Quittner and Ph. Souplet, Superlinear Parabolic Problems. Blow-Up, Global Existence and Steady States,, Birkhäuser Advanced Texts: Basler Lehrbücher. [Birkhäuser Advanced Texts: Basel Textbooks], (2007). Google Scholar

[28]

J. Serrin and H. Zou, Non-existence of positive solutions of Lane-Emden systems,, Differential Integral Equations, 9 (1996), 635. Google Scholar

[29]

J. Serrin and H. Zou, Existence of positive solutions of the Lane-Emden system,, Atti Semin. Mat. Fis. Univ. Modena, 46 (1998), 369. Google Scholar

[30]

Ph. Souplet, The proof of the Lane-Emden conjecture in four space dimensions,, Adv. Math., 221 (2009), 1409. doi: 10.1016/j.aim.2009.02.014. Google Scholar

[31]

M. A. S. Souto, A priori estimates and existence of positive solutions of non-linear cooperative elliptic systems,, Differential Integral Equations, 8 (1995), 1245. Google Scholar

[32]

C. Wang and D. Ye, Some Liouville theorems for Hénon type elliptic equations,, J. Func. Anal., 262 (2012), 1705. doi: 10.1016/j.jfa.2011.11.017. Google Scholar

[33]

J. Wei and D. Ye, Liouville theorems for stable solutions of biharmonic problem,, Mathematische Annalen, 356 (2013), 1599. doi: 10.1007/s00208-012-0894-x. Google Scholar

show all references

References:
[1]

S. N. Amstrong and B. Sirakov, Nonexistence of positive supersolutions of elliptic equations via the maximum principle,, Comm. Partial Differential Equations, 36 (2011), 2011. doi: 10.1080/03605302.2010.534523. Google Scholar

[2]

M. F. Bidaut-Veron and H. Giacomini, A new dynamical approach of Emden-Fowler equations and systems,, Adv. Differential Equations, 15 (2010), 1033. Google Scholar

[3]

L. A. Caffarelli, B. Gidas and J. Spruck, Asymptotic symmetry and local behavior of semilinear elliptic equations with critical Sobolev growth,, Comm. Pure Appl. Math., 42 (1989), 271. doi: 10.1002/cpa.3160420304. Google Scholar

[4]

W. X. Chen and C. Li, Classification of solutions of some nonlinear elliptic equations,, Duke Math. J., 63 (1991), 615. doi: 10.1215/S0012-7094-91-06325-8. Google Scholar

[5]

C. Cowan, Liouville theorems for stable Lane-Emden systems and biharmonic problems,, Nonlinearity, 26 (2013), 2357. doi: 10.1088/0951-7715/26/8/2357. Google Scholar

[6]

C. Cowan and M. Fazly, On stable entire solutions of semi-linear elliptic equations with weights,, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., 140 (2012), 2003. doi: 10.1090/S0002-9939-2011-11351-0. Google Scholar

[7]

E. N. Dancer, Y. Du and Z. M. Guo, Finite Morse index solutions of an elliptic equation with supercritical exponent,, J. Diff. Equ., 250 (2011), 3281. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2011.02.005. Google Scholar

[8]

J. Davila, L. Dupaigne, K. Wang and J. Wei, A monotonicity formula and a Liouville-type theorem for a fourth order supercritical problem,, preprint, (2013). Google Scholar

[9]

Y. Du and Z. Guo, Finite Morse index solutions and asymptotics of weighted nonlinear elliptic equations,, Adv. Differential Equations, 18 (2013), 737. Google Scholar

[10]

P. Esposito, N. Ghoussoub and Y. Guo, Compactness along the branch of semistable and unstable solutions for an elliptic problem with a singular nonlinearity,, Comm. Pure Appl. Math., 60 (2007), 1731. doi: 10.1002/cpa.20189. Google Scholar

[11]

P. Esposito, N. Ghoussoub and Y. Guo, Mathematical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations Modeling Electrostatic MEMS,, Courant Lecture Notes in Mathematics, (2010). Google Scholar

[12]

A. Farina, On the classification of solutions of the Lane-Emden equation on unbounded domains of $\mathbbR^N$,, J. Math. Pures Appl. (9), 87 (2007), 537. doi: 10.1016/j.matpur.2007.03.001. Google Scholar

[13]

M. Fazly, Liouville type theorems for stable solutions of certain elliptic systems,, Advanced Nonlinear Studies, 12 (2012), 1. Google Scholar

[14]

M. Fazly and N. Ghoussoub, De Giorgi type results for elliptic systems,, Calc. Var. Partial Differential Equations, 47 (2013), 809. doi: 10.1007/s00526-012-0536-x. Google Scholar

[15]

B. Gidas, W. M. Ni and L. Nirenberg, Symmetry of positive solutions of nonlinear elliptic equations in $\mathbbR^N$,, in Mathematical Analysis and Applications, (1981), 369. Google Scholar

[16]

B. Gidas and J. Spruck, Global and local behavior of positive solutions of nonlinear elliptic equations,, Commun. Pure Appl. Math., 34 (1981), 525. doi: 10.1002/cpa.3160340406. Google Scholar

[17]

B. Gidas and J. Spruck, A priori bounds for positive solutions of nonlinear elliptic equations,, Comm. Partial Differential Equations, 6 (1981), 883. doi: 10.1080/03605308108820196. Google Scholar

[18]

W. Jeong and Y. Lee, Stable solutions and finite Morse index solutions of nonlinear elliptic equations with Hardy potential,, Nonlinear Analysis, 87 (2013), 126. doi: 10.1016/j.na.2013.04.007. Google Scholar

[19]

C.-S. Lin, A classification of solutions of a conformally invariant fourth order equation in $\mathbbR^N$,, Comment. Math. Helv., 73 (1998), 206. doi: 10.1007/s000140050052. Google Scholar

[20]

E. Mitidieri, Nonexistence of positive solutions of semilinear elliptic systems in $\mathbbR^N$,, Differential Integral Equations, 9 (1996), 465. Google Scholar

[21]

E. Mitidieri, A Rellich type identity and applications,, Comm. Partial Differential Equations, 18 (1993), 125. doi: 10.1080/03605309308820923. Google Scholar

[22]

E. Mitidieri and S. I. Pokhozhaev, A priori estimates and the absence of solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations and inequalities,, Tr. Mat. Inst. Steklova, 234 (2001), 1. Google Scholar

[23]

Q. H. Phan, Liouville-type theorems and bounds of solutions for Hardy-Hénon elliptic systems,, Adv. Diff. Equ., 17 (2012), 605. Google Scholar

[24]

Q. H. Phan and Ph. Souplet, Liouville-type theorems and bounds of solutions of Hardy-Hénon equations,, J. Diff. Equ., 252 (2012), 2544. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2011.09.022. Google Scholar

[25]

P. Poláčik, P. Quittner and Ph. Souplet, Singularity and decay estimates in superlinear problems via Liouville-type theorems. I. Elliptic equations and systems,, Duke Math. J., 139 (2007), 555. doi: 10.1215/S0012-7094-07-13935-8. Google Scholar

[26]

P. Pucci and J. Serrin, A general variational identity,, Indiana Univ. Math. J., 35 (1986), 681. doi: 10.1512/iumj.1986.35.35036. Google Scholar

[27]

P. Quittner and Ph. Souplet, Superlinear Parabolic Problems. Blow-Up, Global Existence and Steady States,, Birkhäuser Advanced Texts: Basler Lehrbücher. [Birkhäuser Advanced Texts: Basel Textbooks], (2007). Google Scholar

[28]

J. Serrin and H. Zou, Non-existence of positive solutions of Lane-Emden systems,, Differential Integral Equations, 9 (1996), 635. Google Scholar

[29]

J. Serrin and H. Zou, Existence of positive solutions of the Lane-Emden system,, Atti Semin. Mat. Fis. Univ. Modena, 46 (1998), 369. Google Scholar

[30]

Ph. Souplet, The proof of the Lane-Emden conjecture in four space dimensions,, Adv. Math., 221 (2009), 1409. doi: 10.1016/j.aim.2009.02.014. Google Scholar

[31]

M. A. S. Souto, A priori estimates and existence of positive solutions of non-linear cooperative elliptic systems,, Differential Integral Equations, 8 (1995), 1245. Google Scholar

[32]

C. Wang and D. Ye, Some Liouville theorems for Hénon type elliptic equations,, J. Func. Anal., 262 (2012), 1705. doi: 10.1016/j.jfa.2011.11.017. Google Scholar

[33]

J. Wei and D. Ye, Liouville theorems for stable solutions of biharmonic problem,, Mathematische Annalen, 356 (2013), 1599. doi: 10.1007/s00208-012-0894-x. Google Scholar

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