# American Institute of Mathematical Sciences

doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2021084
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## Mixed Hegselmann-Krause dynamics

 School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA

Received  October 2020 Revised  December 2020 Early access March 2021

The original Hegselmann-Krause (HK) model consists of a set of $n$ agents that are characterized by their opinion, a number in $[0, 1]$. Each agent, say agent $i$, updates its opinion $x_i$ by taking the average opinion of all its neighbors, the agents whose opinion differs from $x_i$ by at most $\epsilon$. There are two types of HK models: the synchronous HK model and the asynchronous HK model. For the synchronous model, all the agents update their opinion simultaneously at each time step, whereas for the asynchronous HK model, only one agent chosen uniformly at random updates its opinion at each time step. This paper is concerned with a variant of the HK opinion dynamics, called the mixed HK model, where each agent can choose its degree of stubbornness and mix its opinion with the average opinion of its neighbors at each update. The degree of the stubbornness of agents can be different and/or vary over time. An agent is not stubborn or absolutely open-minded if its new opinion at each update is the average opinion of its neighbors, and absolutely stubborn if its opinion does not change at the time of the update. The particular case where, at each time step, all the agents are absolutely open-minded is the synchronous HK model. In contrast, the asynchronous model corresponds to the particular case where, at each time step, all the agents are absolutely stubborn except for one agent chosen uniformly at random who is absolutely open-minded. We first show that some of the common properties of the synchronous HK model, such as finite-time convergence, do not hold for the mixed model. We then investigate conditions under which the asymptotic stability holds, or a consensus can be achieved for the mixed model.

Citation: Hsin-Lun Li. Mixed Hegselmann-Krause dynamics. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - B, doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2021084
##### References:
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show all references

##### References:
 [1] L. W. Beineke, P. J. Cameron and R. J. Wilson, Topics in Algebraic Graph Theory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2004.   Google Scholar [2] T. Biyikoglu, J. Leydold and P. F. Stadler, Laplacian Eigenvectors of Graphs: Perron-Frobenius and Faber-Krahn Type Theorems, , Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2007. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-73510-6.  Google Scholar [3] S. R. Etesami and T. Başar, Game-theoretic analysis of the Hegselmann-Krause model for Opinion dynamics in finite dimensions, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 60 (2015), 1886-1897.  doi: 10.1109/TAC.2015.2394954.  Google Scholar [4] W. Han, C. Huang and J. Yang, Opinion clusters in a modified Hegselmann-Krause model with heterogeneous bounded confidences and stubbornness, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 531 (2019), Article 121791. doi: 10.1016/j.physa.2019.121791.  Google Scholar [5] R. A. Horn and C. R. Johnson, Matrix Analysis,, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2013.   Google Scholar
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