ISSN:

1534-0392

eISSN:

1553-5258

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## Communications on Pure & Applied Analysis

May 2016 , Volume 15 , Issue 3

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2016, 15(3): 701-713
doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2016.15.701

*+*[Abstract](710)*+*[PDF](393.7KB)**Abstract:**

In this paper, we study the monotonicity and nonexistence of positive solutions for polyharmonic systems $\left\{\begin{array}{rlll} (-\Delta)^m u&=&f(u, v)\\ (-\Delta)^m v&=&g(u, v) \end{array}\right.\;\hbox{in}\;\mathbb{R}^N_+.$ By using the Alexandrov-Serrin method of moving plane combined with integral inequalities and Sobolev's inequality in a narrow domain, we prove the monotonicity of positive solutions for semilinear polyharmonic systems in $\mathbb{R_+^N}.$ As a result, the nonexistence for positive weak solutions to the system are obtained.

2016, 15(3): 715-726
doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2016.15.715

*+*[Abstract](835)*+*[PDF](369.4KB)**Abstract:**

We investigate the geometry and validity of various compactness conditions (e.g. Palais-Smale condition) for the energy functional \begin{eqnarray} J_{\lambda_1}(u)=\frac{1}{p}\int_\Omega |\nabla u|^p \ \mathrm{d}x- \frac{\lambda_1}{p}\int_\Omega|u|^p \ \mathrm{d}x - \int_\Omega fu \ \mathrm{d}x \nonumber \end{eqnarray} for $u \in W^{1,p}_0(\Omega)$, $1 < p < \infty$, where $\Omega$ is a bounded domain in $\mathbb{R}^N$, $f \in L^\infty(\Omega)$ is a given function and $-\lambda_1<0$ is the first eigenvalue of the Dirichlet $p$-Laplacian $\Delta_p$ on $W_0^{1,p}(\Omega)$.

2016, 15(3): 727-760
doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2016.15.727

*+*[Abstract](889)*+*[PDF](563.2KB)**Abstract:**

In this paper we study the Novikov-Veselov equation and the related modified Novikov-Veselov equation in certain Sobolev spaces. We prove local well-posedness in $H^s (\mathbb{R}^2)$ for $s > \frac{1}{2}$ for the Novikov-Veselov equation, and local well-posedness in $H^s (\mathbb{R}^2)$ for $s > 1$ for the modified Novikov-Veselov equation. Finally we point out some ill-posedness issues for the Novikov-Veselov equation in the supercritical regime.

2016, 15(3): 761-794
doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2016.15.761

*+*[Abstract](853)*+*[PDF](547.8KB)**Abstract:**

In this article we consider parabolic systems and $L_p$ regularity of the solutions. With zero boundary condition the solutions experience bad regularity near the boundary. This article addresses a possible way of describing the regularity nature. Our space domain is a half space and we adapt an appropriate weight into our function spaces. In this weighted Sobolev space setting we develop a Fefferman-Stein theorem, a Hardy-Littlewood theorem and sharp function estimations. Using these, we prove uniqueness and existence results for second-order elliptic and parabolic partial differential systems in weighed Sobolev spaces.

2016, 15(3): 795-806
doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2016.15.795

*+*[Abstract](977)*+*[PDF](413.7KB)**Abstract:**

A class of virus dynamic model with inhibitory effect on the growth of uninfected T cells caused by infected T cells is proposed. It is shown that the infection-free equilibrium of the model is globally asymptotically stable, if the reproduction number $R_0$ is less than one, and that the infected equilibrium of the model is locally asymptotically stable, if the reproduction number $R_0$ is larger than one. Furthermore, it is also shown that the model is uniformly persistent, and some explicit formulae for the lower bounds of the solutions of the model are obtained.

2016, 15(3): 807-830
doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2016.15.807

*+*[Abstract](1137)*+*[PDF](476.2KB)**Abstract:**

We prove there are no positive solutions with slow decay rates to higher order elliptic system \begin{eqnarray} \left\{ \begin{array}{c} \left( -\Delta \right) ^{m}u=\left\vert x\right\vert ^{a}v^{p} \\ \left( -\Delta \right) ^{m}v=\left\vert x\right\vert ^{b}u^{q} \end{array} \text{ in }\mathbb{R}^{N}\right. \end{eqnarray} if $p\geq 1,$ $q\geq 1,$ $\left( p,q\right) \neq \left( 1,1\right) $ satisfies $\frac{1+\frac{a}{N}}{p+1}+\frac{1+\frac{b}{N}}{q+1}>1-\frac{2m}{N} $ and \begin{eqnarray} \max \left( \frac{2m\left( p+1\right) +a+bp}{pq-1},\frac{2m\left( q+1\right) +aq+b}{pq-1}\right) >N-2m-1. \end{eqnarray} Moreover, if $N=2m+1$ or $N=2m+2,$ this system admits no positive solutions with slow decay rates if $p\geq 1,$ $q\geq 1,$ $\left( p,q\right) \neq \left( 1,1\right) $ satisfies $\frac{1}{ p+1}+\frac{1}{q+1}>1-\frac{2m}{N}.$

2016, 15(3): 831-851
doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2016.15.831

*+*[Abstract](1046)*+*[PDF](481.9KB)**Abstract:**

In the present paper, we consider the Cauchy problem of fourth order nonlinear Schrödinger type equations with derivative nonlinearity. In one dimensional case, the small data global well-posedness and scattering for the fourth order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the nonlinear term $\partial _x (\overline{u}^4)$ are shown in the scaling invariant space $\dot{H}^{-1/2}$. Furthermore, we show that the same result holds for the $d \ge 2$ and derivative polynomial type nonlinearity, for example $|\nabla | (u^m)$ with $(m-1)d \ge 4$, where $d$ denotes the space dimension.

2016, 15(3): 853-870
doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2016.15.853

*+*[Abstract](762)*+*[PDF](438.2KB)**Abstract:**

We establish the existence of nontrivial solutions for the following quasilinear Schrödinger equation with critical Sobolev exponent: \begin{eqnarray} -\Delta u+V(x) u-\Delta [l(u^2)]l'(u^2)u= \lambda u^{\alpha2^*-1}+h(u),\ \ x\in \mathbb{R}^N, \end{eqnarray} where $V(x):\mathbb{R}^N\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is a given potential and $l,h$ are real functions, $\lambda\geq 0$, $\alpha>1$, $2^*=2N/(N-2)$, $N\geq 3$. Our results cover two physical models $l(s)=s^{\frac{\alpha}{2}}$ and $l(s) = (1+s)^{\frac{\alpha}{2}}$ with $\alpha\geq 3/2$.

2016, 15(3): 871-892
doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2016.15.871

*+*[Abstract](889)*+*[PDF](461.7KB)**Abstract:**

In this paper, we propose a diffusive SEIR epidemic model with saturating incidence rate. We first study the well posedness of the model, and give the explicit formula of the basic reproduction number $\mathcal{R}_0$. And hence, we show that if $\mathcal{R}_0>1$, then there exists a positive constant $c^*>0$ such that for each $c>c^*$, the model admits a nontrivial traveling wave solution, and if $\mathcal{R}_0\leq1$ and $c\geq 0$ (or, $\mathcal{R}_0>1$ and $c\in[0,c^*)$), then the model has no nontrivial traveling wave solutions. Consequently, we confirm that the constant $c^*$ is indeed the minimal wave speed. The proof of the main results is mainly based on Schauder fixed theorem and Laplace transform.

2016, 15(3): 893-906
doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2016.15.893

*+*[Abstract](843)*+*[PDF](403.5KB)**Abstract:**

In this paper, we study a differential system associated with the Bessel potential: \begin{eqnarray}\begin{cases} (I-\Delta)^{\frac{\alpha}{2}}u(x)=f_1(u(x),v(x)),\\ (I-\Delta)^{\frac{\alpha}{2}}v(x)=f_2(u(x),v(x)), \end{cases}\end{eqnarray} where $f_1(u(x),v(x))=\lambda_1u^{p_1}(x)+\mu_1v^{q_1}(x)+\gamma_1u^{\alpha_1}(x)v^{\beta_1}(x)$, $f_2(u(x),v(x))=\lambda_2u^{p_2}(x)+\mu_2v^{q_2}(x)+\gamma_2u^{\alpha_2}(x)v^{\beta_2}(x)$, $I$ is the identity operator and $\Delta=\sum_{j=1}^{n}\frac{\partial^2}{\partial x^2_j}$ is the Laplacian operator in $\mathbb{R}^n$. Under some appropriate conditions, this differential system is equivalent to an integral system of the Bessel potential type. By the regularity lifting method developed in [4] and [18], we obtain the regularity of solutions to the integral system. We then apply the moving planes method to obtain radial symmetry and monotonicity of positive solutions. We also establish the uniqueness theorem for radially symmetric solutions. Our nonlinear terms $f_1(u(x), v(x))$ and $f_2(u(x), v(x))$ are quite general and our results extend the earlier ones even in the case of single equation substantially.

2016, 15(3): 907-927
doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2016.15.907

*+*[Abstract](738)*+*[PDF](476.4KB)**Abstract:**

We derive $C^{1,\sigma}$-estimate for the solutions of a class of non-local elliptic Bellman-Isaacs equations. These equations are fully nonlinear and are associated with infinite horizon stochastic differential game problems involving jump-diffusions. The non-locality is represented by the presence of fractional order diffusion term and we deal with the particular case of $\frac 12$-Laplacian, where the order $\frac 12$ is known as the critical order in this context. More importantly, these equations are not translation invariant and we prove that the viscosity solutions of such equations are $C^{1,\sigma}$, making the equations classically solvable.

2016, 15(3): 929-946
doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2016.15.929

*+*[Abstract](724)*+*[PDF](441.3KB)**Abstract:**

Stein and Wainger [21] proved the $L^p$ bounds of the polynomial Carleson operator for all integer-power polynomials without linear term. In the present paper, we partially generalise this result to all fractional monomials in dimension one. Moreover, the connections with Carleson's theorem and the Hilbert transform along vector fields or (variable) curves %and a polynomial Carleson operator along the paraboloid are also discussed in details.

2016, 15(3): 947-964
doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2016.15.947

*+*[Abstract](866)*+*[PDF](439.7KB)**Abstract:**

We study entire solutions in $R$ of the nonlocal system $(-\Delta)^{s}U+\nabla W(U)=(0,0)$ where $W:R^{2}\rightarrow R$ is a double well potential. We seek solutions $U$ which are heteroclinic in the sense that they connect at infinity a pair of global minima of $W$ and are also global minimizers. Under some symmetric assumptions on potential $W$, we prove the existence of such solutions for $s>\frac{1}{2}$, and give asymptotic behavior as $x\rightarrow\pm\infty$.

2016, 15(3): 965-989
doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2016.15.965

*+*[Abstract](792)*+*[PDF](496.0KB)**Abstract:**

Without any symmetric conditions on potentials, we proved the following nonlinear Schrödinger system \begin{eqnarray} \left\{\begin{array}{ll} \Delta u-P(x)u+\mu_1u^3+\beta uv^2=0, \quad &\mbox{in} \quad R^2\\ \Delta v-Q(x)v+\mu_2v^3+\beta vu^2=0, \quad &\mbox{in} \quad R^2 \end{array} \right. \end{eqnarray} has infinitely many non-radial solutions with suitable decaying rate at infinity of potentials $P(x)$ and $Q(x)$. This is the continued work of [8]. Especially when $P(x)$ and $Q(x)$ are symmetric, this result has been proved in [18].

2016, 15(3): 991-1008
doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2016.15.991

*+*[Abstract](897)*+*[PDF](430.2KB)**Abstract:**

In this paper, we establish the existence of ground state solutions for fractional Schrödinger equations with a critical exponent. The methods used here are based on the $s-$harmonic extension technique of Caffarelli and Silvestre, the concentration-compactness principle of Lions and methods of Brezis and Nirenberg.

2016, 15(3): 1009-1028
doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2016.15.1009

*+*[Abstract](719)*+*[PDF](416.5KB)**Abstract:**

A two-dimensional thermoviscoelastic system of Kelvin-Voigt type with strong dependence on temperature is considered. The existence and uniqueness of a global regular solution is proved without small data assumptions. The global existence is proved in two steps. First global a priori estimate is derived applying the theory of anisotropic Sobolev spaces with a mixed norm. Then local existence, proved by the method of successive approximations for a sufficiently small time interval, is extended step by step in time. By two-dimensional solution we mean that all its quantities depend on two space variables only.

2016, 15(3): 1029-1039
doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2016.15.1029

*+*[Abstract](892)*+*[PDF](4710.4KB)**Abstract:**

A spherical Radon transform whose integral domain is a sphere has many applications in partial differential equations as well as tomography. This paper is devoted to the spherical Radon transform which assigns to a given function its integrals over the set of spheres passing through the origin. We present a relation between this spherical Radon transform and the regular Radon transform, and we provide a new inversion formula for the spherical Radon transform using this relation. Numerical simulations were performed to demonstrate the suggested algorithm in dimension 2.

2016, 15(3): 1041-1055
doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2016.15.1041

*+*[Abstract](1037)*+*[PDF](2561.0KB)**Abstract:**

Recently, we (J. Huang, Y. Gong and S. Ruan,

*Discrete Contin. Dynam. Syst. B*

**18**(2013), 2101-2121) showed that a Leslie-Gower type predator-prey model with constant-yield predator harvesting has a Bogdanov-Takens singularity (cusp) of codimension 3 for some parameter values. In this paper, we prove analytically that the model undergoes Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation (cusp case) of codimension 3. To confirm the theoretical analysis and results, we also perform numerical simulations for various bifurcation scenarios, including the existence of two limit cycles, the coexistence of a stable homoclinic loop and an unstable limit cycle, supercritical and subcritical Hopf bifurcations, and homoclinic bifurcation of codimension 1.

2016, 15(3): 1057-1076
doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2016.15.1057

*+*[Abstract](1270)*+*[PDF](1955.9KB)**Abstract:**

This paper is concerned with a nonlocal reaction-diffusion equation with the form \begin{eqnarray} \frac{\partial u}{\partial t}=\frac{\partial^{2}u}{\partial x^{2}}+u\left\{ 1+\alpha u-\beta u^{2}-(1+\alpha-\beta)(\phi\ast u) \right\}, \quad (t,x)\in (0,\infty) \times \mathbb{R}, \end{eqnarray} where $\alpha $ and $\beta$ are positive constants, $0<\beta<1+\alpha$. We prove that there exists a number $c^*\geq 2$ such that the equation admits a positive traveling wave solution connecting the zero equilibrium to an unknown positive steady state for each speed $c>c^*$. At the same time, we show that there is no such traveling wave solutions for speed $c<2$. For sufficiently large speed $c>c^*$, we further show that the steady state is the unique positive equilibrium. Using the lower and upper solutions method, we also establish the existence of monotone traveling wave fronts connecting the zero equilibrium and the positive equilibrium. Finally, for a specific kernel function $\phi(x):=\frac{1}{2\sigma}e^{-\frac{|x|}{\sigma}}$ ($\sigma>0$), by numerical simulations we show that the traveling wave solutions may connects the zero equilibrium to a periodic steady state as $\sigma$ is increased. Furthermore, by the stability analysis we explain why and when a periodic steady state can appear.

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