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Journal of Geometric Mechanics

December 2017 , Volume 9 , Issue 4

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On a geometric framework for Lagrangian supermechanics
Andrew James Bruce, Katarzyna Grabowska and Giovanni Moreno
2017, 9(4): 411-437 doi: 10.3934/jgm.2017016 +[Abstract](550) +[HTML](151) +[PDF](531.9KB)
Abstract:

We re-examine classical mechanics with both commuting and anticommuting degrees of freedom. We do this by defining the phase dynamics of a general Lagrangian system as an implicit differential equation in the spirit of Tulczyjew. Rather than parametrising our basic degrees of freedom by a specified Grassmann algebra, we use arbitrary supermanifolds by following the categorical approach to supermanifolds.

Instability criterion for periodic solutions with spatio-temporal symmetries in Hamiltonian systems
Pietro-Luciano Buono and Daniel C. Offin
2017, 9(4): 439-457 doi: 10.3934/jgm.2017017 +[Abstract](413) +[HTML](83) +[PDF](417.0KB)
Abstract:

We consider the question of linear stability of a periodic solution \begin{document}$z(t)$\end{document} with finite spatio-temporal symmetry group of a reversible-equivariant Hamiltonian system obtained as a minimizer of the action functional. Our main theorem states that \begin{document}$z(t)$\end{document} is unstable if a subspace \begin{document}$W$\end{document} associated with the boundary conditions of the minimizing problem is a Lagrangian subspace with no focal points on the time interval defined by the boundary conditions and the second variation restricted to the subspace \begin{document}$W$\end{document} at the minimizer has positive directions. We show that the conditions of our theorem are always met for a class of minimizing periodic orbits with the standard mechanical reversing symmetry. Comparison theorems for Lagrangian subspaces and the use of time-reversing symmetries are essential tools in constructing stable and unstable subspaces for \begin{document}$z(t)$\end{document}. In particular, our results are complementary to the recent paper of Hu and Sun Commun. Math. Phys. 290, (2009).

On the relationship between the energy shaping and the Lyapunov constraint based methods
Sergio Grillo, Leandro Salomone and Marcela Zuccalli
2017, 9(4): 459-486 doi: 10.3934/jgm.2017018 +[Abstract](334) +[HTML](159) +[PDF](568.6KB)
Abstract:

In this paper, we make a review of the controlled Hamiltonians (CH) method and its related matching conditions, focusing on an improved version recently developed by D.E. Chang. Also, we review the general ideas around the Lyapunov constraint based (LCB) method, whose related partial differential equations (PDEs) were originally studied for underactuated systems with only one actuator, and then we study its PDEs for an arbitrary number of actuators. We analyze and compare these methods within the framework of Differential Geometry, and from a purely theoretical point of view. We show, in the context of control systems defined by simple Hamiltonian functions, that the LCB method and the Chang's version of the CH method are equivalent stabilization methods (i.e. they give rise to the same set of control laws). In other words, we show that the Chang's improvement of the energy shaping method is precisely the LCB method. As a by-product, coordinate-free and connection-free expressions of Chang's matching conditions are obtained.

The physical foundations of geometric mechanics
Andrew D. Lewis
2017, 9(4): 487-574 doi: 10.3934/jgm.2017019 +[Abstract](802) +[HTML](188) +[PDF](2331.7KB)
Abstract:

The principles of geometric mechanics are extended to the physical elements of mechanics, including space and time, rigid bodies, constraints, forces, and dynamics. What is arrived at is a comprehensive and rigorous presentation of basic mechanics, starting with precise formulations of the physical axioms. A few components of the presentation are novel. One is a mathematical presentation of force and torque, providing certain well-known, but seldom clearly exposited, fundamental theorems about force and torque. The classical principles of Virtual Work and Lagrange-d'Alembert are also given clear mathematical statements in various guises and contexts. Another novel facet of the presentation is its derivation of the Euler-Lagrange equations. Standard derivations of the Euler-Lagrange equations from the equations of motion for Newtonian mechanics are typically done for interconnections of particles. Here this is carried out in a coordinate-free rmner for rigid bodies, giving for the first time a direct geometric path from the Newton-Euler equations to the Euler-Lagrange equations in the rigid body setting.

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