Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems - Series B (DCDS-B)

Daphnia species invasion, competitive exclusion, and chaotic coexistence

Pages: 481 - 493, Volume 12, Issue 2, September 2009      doi:10.3934/dcdsb.2009.12.481

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Hao Wang - School of Mathematics and School of Biology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0160, United States (email)
Katherine Dunning - School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501, United States (email)
James J. Elser - School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501, United States (email)
Yang Kuang - Department of Mathematics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1804, United States (email)

Abstract: The cladoceran Daphnia lumholtzi has invaded many US rivers and lakes. To better understand the ecological factors and consequences associated with D. lumholtzi invasion, we carried out a microcosm experiment evaluating competition of D. lumholtzi with a widespread native daphnid, D. pulex. We applied two light treatments to these two different microcosms and found strong context-dependent competitive exclusion in both treatments. We observed that D. lumholtzi out-competed D. pulex in the high light treatment, while D. pulex out-competed D. lumholtzi in the low light treatment. To better understand these results we developed and tested a mechanistically formulated stoichiometric population interaction model. This model exhibits chaotic coexistence of the competing species of Daphnia. The rich dynamics of this model allow us to suggest some plausible strategies to control the invasive species D. lumholtzi.

Keywords:  stoichiometry, Daphnia, invasion, chaotic coexistence, competitive exclusion.
Mathematics Subject Classification:  Primary, 92B05, 92D40, 92D25; Secondary, 34A34, 34D05, 34D23, 34D40.

Received: September 2008;      Revised: April 2009;      Available Online: July 2009.