2013, 10(5&6): 1265-1279. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2013.10.1265

Life history traits of Sirex Noctilio F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) can explain outbreaks independently of environmental factors

1. 

Instituto de Investigación en Energías no Convencionales, INENCO, CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Salta, Av. Bolivia 5150, 4400 Salta,, Argentina

2. 

Grupo de Ecología de Poblaciones de Insectos, INTA EEA Bariloche, Modesta Victoria 1500, 8400 Bariloche, Argentina

3. 

Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de Vectores (CEPAVE), Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Calle 2 No. 584, 1900 La Plata, Argentina

Received  September 2012 Revised  April 2013 Published  August 2013

The woodwasp Sirex noctilio is a major pest of pine plantations worldwide. Economically significant damage is however limited to outbreak populations. To understand what determines outbreaks dynamics in this species, we developed an individual based model for a wasp population developing within a pine plantation. We show that outbreaks may be the result of the insect's life history. Specifically we show that limited dispersal may not only increase population persistence but also create the conditions for eruptive dynamics. When the probability of long distance dispersal is greater than zero, but relatively small ($P_{LDD}$= 0.1) large outbreaks are the norm, with all of the suitable trees dead at the end of the simulation. For $P_{LDD}$= 0 (only local dispersal allowed) outbreaks are smaller in size, and in some cases not well defined and spread over longer periods. For $P_{LDD}$= 1 (only long distance dispersal allowed), the frequency of local population extinction (without outbreaks) increases significantly. Aggregated attacks may induce physiological changes in the trees which could allow other wasps to detect them. These changes may in turn trigger an outbreak. In contrast, healthy, vigorous trees are not suitable for wasp oviposition. In our model the density of suitable trees (healthy trees but yet suitable for oviposition) are a key factor determining population persistence before outbreaks. From an applied perspective, our results emphasize the importance of adequate plantation management in preventing woodwasp infestation.
Citation: Juan Pablo Aparicio, Juan Carlos Corley, Jorge Eduardo Rabinovich. Life history traits of Sirex Noctilio F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) can explain outbreaks independently of environmental factors. Mathematical Biosciences & Engineering, 2013, 10 (5&6) : 1265-1279. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2013.10.1265
References:
[1]

A. A. Berryman, "Forest Insects. Principles and Practice of Population Management,", Population Ecology, (1986).

[2]

A. A. Berryman, The theory and classification of outbreaks,, in, (1987).

[3]

O. A. Bruzzone, J. M. Villacide, C. Bernstein and J. C. Corley, Flight variability in the woodwasp Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae): An analysis of flight data using wavelets,, J. Exp. Biol., 212 (2009), 731. doi: 10.1242/jeb.022517.

[4]

N. Capuccino, H. Damman and J. F. Dubuc, Spatial behavior and temporal dynamics of outbreak and nonoutbreak species,, in, (1995), 65. doi: 10.1016/B978-012159270-7/50005-1.

[5]

W. E. Cole and G. D. Amman, Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics in Lodgepole Pine Forests. Part I: Course of an Infestation,, USDA Forest Service, (1980).

[6]

J. C. Corley and M. A. Jervis, Forest Pest Management. A global challenge,, International Journal of Pest Management, 58 (2012), 193. doi: 10.1080/09670874.2012.701782.

[7]

J. C. Corley, J. M. Villacide and O. A. Bruzzone, Spatial dynamics of woodwasp (Sirex noctilio F., Hymenoptera:Siricidae) attacks within a pine plantation of Patagonia (Argentina),, Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 125 (2007), 231.

[8]

J. C. Corley and J. M. Villacide, Population dynamics of Sirex noctilio: Influence of diapause, spatial aggregationand flight potential on woodwasp outbreaks and spread,, in, (2012).

[9]

M. P. Coutts, The mechanism of pathogenicity of Sirex noctilio on Pinus radiata. I. Effects of the symbiotic fungus Amylostereum sp. (Thelophoraceae),, Australian Journal of Biological Science, 22 (1969), 915.

[10]

M. P. Coutts and J. E. Dolezal, Emplacement of fungal spores by the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, during oviposition,, Forest Science, 15 (1969), 412.

[11]

J. Esper, U. Buntgen, D. C. Frank, D. Nievergelt and A. Liebhold, 1200 years of regular outbreaks in alpine insects,, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 274 (2007), 671. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2006.0191.

[12]

D. A. Gansner, D. A. Drake, S. L. Arner, R. R. Hershey and S. L. King, Defoliation potential of gypsy moth,, Res. Note NE-354, (1993).

[13]

E. R. Hoebeke, D. A. Haugen and R. A. Haack, Sirex noctilio: Discovery of a Palearctic siricid woodwasp in New York,, Newsletter of the Michigan Entomological Society, 50 (2005), 24.

[14]

A. F. Hunter, Ecology, life history and Phylogeny of outbreak and nonoutbreak species,, in, (1995). doi: 10.1016/B978-012159270-7/50004-X.

[15]

B. P. Hurley, B. Slippers and M. J. Wingfield, A comparison of control results for the alien invasive woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, in the southern hemisphere,, Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 9 (2007), 159. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-9563.2007.00340.x.

[16]

E. T. Iede, S. R. Penteado and J. L. Bisol, Primeiro registro de ataque de Sirex noctilio em Pinus taeda no Brasil,, EMBRAPA-CNPF, (1988).

[17]

J. Koricheva, S. Larsson and E. Haukioja, Insect performance on experimentally stressed woody plants: A meta-analysis,, Annual Review of Entomology, 43 (1998), 196. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ento.43.1.195.

[18]

S. Kucherov, The reconstruction on Lymantria dispar outbreaks by dendrochronological methods in the south Urals,, in, (1991), 205.

[19]

A. Liebhold, E. Luzader, J. Halverson and G. Elmes, The spatial dynamics of invasions by exotic forest pests,, in, (1993), 125.

[20]

J. A. Logan, P. V. Bolstad, B. J. Bentz and D. L. Perkins, Assessing the effects of changing climate on Mountain Pine beetle dynamics,, in, (1995), 25.

[21]

J. Lubchenco, A. M. Olson, L. B. Brubaker, S. R. Carpenter, M. M. Holland, S. P. Hubbell, S. A. Levin, J. A. Macmahon, P. A. Matson, J. M. Melillo, H. A. Mooney, C. H. Peterson, H. R. Pulliam, L. A. Real, P. J. Regal and P. G. Risser, The Sustainable Biosphere Initiative: An ecological research agenda,, Ecology, 72 (1991), 371. doi: 10.2307/2937183.

[22]

D. Ludwig, D. D. Jones and C. S Holling, Qualitative analysis of insect outbreak systems: The spruce budworm and forest,, Journal of Animal Ecology, 47 (1978), 315. doi: 10.2307/3939.

[23]

J. L. Madden, Oviposition behavior of the woodwasp Sirex noctilio F.,, Australian Journal of Zoology, 22 (1974), 341. doi: 10.1071/ZO9740341.

[24]

J. L. Madden, Physiological aspects of host tree favourability for the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio f.,, Proc. Ecol. Soc. Aust., 3 (1968), 147.

[25]

J. L. Madden, Sirex in Australasia,, in, (1988), 407. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4899-0789-9_20.

[26]

M.-A. Moravie, A. C. Davison, D. Pasquier and P.-J. Charmillot, Bayesian forecasting of grape moth emergence,, Ecological Modelling, 197 (2006), 478. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.03.030.

[27]

F. D. Morgan and N. C. Stewart, The effects of Rhyssa persuasoria (L.) on the population of Sirex noctilio (F.),, Transaction of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 8 (1966), 31.

[28]

R. R. Mason, D. W. Scott, M. D. Loewen and H. G. Paul, Recurrent outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth in the Malheur National Forest: A case history,, Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-402, (1998).

[29]

F. G. Neumann and G. Minko, The sirex woodwasp in Australian radiata pine plantations,, Australian Forestry, 44 (1981), 46.

[30]

R. A. Obedzinski, J. M. Schmid, S. A. Mata, W. K. Olsen and R. R. Kessler, Growth of Ponderosa pine stands in relation to mountain pine beetle susceptibility,, Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-28, (1999).

[31]

M. Peltonen, A. M. Liebhold, O. N. Bjrnstad and D. W. Williams, Spatial synchrony in forest insect outbreaks: Roles of regional stochasticity and dispersal,, Ecology, 83 (2002), 3120.

[32]

G. B. Rawlings and N. M. Wilson, Sirex noctilio as a beneficial and destructive insect to Pinus radiata,, New Zealand Journal of Forestry, 6 (1949), 1.

[33]

J. D. Reeve, Environmental varibality, migration and persistence in host parasitoid systems,, American Naturalist, 32 (1988), 810.

[34]

T. Royama, "Analytical Population Dynamics,", Chapman & Hall, (1992).

[35]

K. Ryan and B. Hurley, Life History and Biology of Sirex noctilio,, in, (2012), 15.

[36]

A. V. Selikhovkin, D. L. Musolin and T. E. Sergeeva, Defoliating insects: history of outbreaks in the coniferous forests of Russia,, in, (1998).

[37]

A. A. Sharov, Integrating host, natural enemy, and other processes in population models of the pine sawfly,, in, (1991), 187.

[38]

A. A. Sharov, Modeling insect dynamics,, in, (1996), 6.

[39]

J. P. Spradbery and A. A. Kirk, Experimental studies on the responses of European siricid woodwasps to host trees,, Annals of Applied Biology, 98 (1981), 179. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7348.1981.tb00751.x.

[40]

J. P. Spradbery, The oviposition biology of siricid wasps in Europe,, Ecological Entomology, 2 (1977), 224.

[41]

J. P. Spradbery and A. A. Kirk, Aspects of the ecology of siricid woodwasps (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) in Europe, North Africa and Turkey with special reference to the biological control of Sirex noctilio F. in Australia,, Bulletin of Entomological Research, 68 (1978), 341. doi: 10.1017/S0007485300009330.

[42]

K. L. Taylor, Evaluation of insect parasitoids of Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) in Tasmania,, Oecologia, 32 (1978), 1. doi: 10.1007/BF00344686.

[43]

K. L. Taylor, The Sirex woodwasp: Ecology and control of an introduced forest insect,, in, (1981), 213.

[44]

O. Tenow, A. C. Nilssen, B. Holmgren and F. Elverum, An insect (Argyresthia retinella, Lep., Yponeumonidae) outbreack in northern birch forests, released by climatic changes?,, Journal of Applied Ecology, 36 (1999), 111.

[45]

G. D. Tribe, The woodwasp Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Siricidae), a pest of Pinus species, now established in South Africa,, African Entomology, 3 (1995), 216.

[46]

G. C. Varley and G. R. Gradwell, Population models for the winter moth, in, (1968), 132.

[47]

J. M. Villacide and J. C. Corley, Ecology of the woodwasp Sirex noctilio: Tackling the challenge of successful pest management,, International Journal of Pest Management, 58 (2012), 249.

[48]

R. M. Weseloh, Predicting Gypsy moth defoliation using spatially explicit information,, in, (1998).

[49]

J. W. Wilder, I. Christie and J. J. Colbert, Modelling of two-dimensional spatial effects on the spread of forest pests and their management,, Ecological Modelling, 82 (1995), 287. doi: 10.1016/0304-3800(95)00097-F.

[50]

Q. B. Zhang and R. I. Alfaro, Spatial synchrony of the two-year cycle budworm outbreaks in Central British Columbia, Canada,, Oikos, 102 (2003), 146. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0706.2003.12169.x.

show all references

References:
[1]

A. A. Berryman, "Forest Insects. Principles and Practice of Population Management,", Population Ecology, (1986).

[2]

A. A. Berryman, The theory and classification of outbreaks,, in, (1987).

[3]

O. A. Bruzzone, J. M. Villacide, C. Bernstein and J. C. Corley, Flight variability in the woodwasp Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae): An analysis of flight data using wavelets,, J. Exp. Biol., 212 (2009), 731. doi: 10.1242/jeb.022517.

[4]

N. Capuccino, H. Damman and J. F. Dubuc, Spatial behavior and temporal dynamics of outbreak and nonoutbreak species,, in, (1995), 65. doi: 10.1016/B978-012159270-7/50005-1.

[5]

W. E. Cole and G. D. Amman, Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics in Lodgepole Pine Forests. Part I: Course of an Infestation,, USDA Forest Service, (1980).

[6]

J. C. Corley and M. A. Jervis, Forest Pest Management. A global challenge,, International Journal of Pest Management, 58 (2012), 193. doi: 10.1080/09670874.2012.701782.

[7]

J. C. Corley, J. M. Villacide and O. A. Bruzzone, Spatial dynamics of woodwasp (Sirex noctilio F., Hymenoptera:Siricidae) attacks within a pine plantation of Patagonia (Argentina),, Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 125 (2007), 231.

[8]

J. C. Corley and J. M. Villacide, Population dynamics of Sirex noctilio: Influence of diapause, spatial aggregationand flight potential on woodwasp outbreaks and spread,, in, (2012).

[9]

M. P. Coutts, The mechanism of pathogenicity of Sirex noctilio on Pinus radiata. I. Effects of the symbiotic fungus Amylostereum sp. (Thelophoraceae),, Australian Journal of Biological Science, 22 (1969), 915.

[10]

M. P. Coutts and J. E. Dolezal, Emplacement of fungal spores by the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, during oviposition,, Forest Science, 15 (1969), 412.

[11]

J. Esper, U. Buntgen, D. C. Frank, D. Nievergelt and A. Liebhold, 1200 years of regular outbreaks in alpine insects,, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 274 (2007), 671. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2006.0191.

[12]

D. A. Gansner, D. A. Drake, S. L. Arner, R. R. Hershey and S. L. King, Defoliation potential of gypsy moth,, Res. Note NE-354, (1993).

[13]

E. R. Hoebeke, D. A. Haugen and R. A. Haack, Sirex noctilio: Discovery of a Palearctic siricid woodwasp in New York,, Newsletter of the Michigan Entomological Society, 50 (2005), 24.

[14]

A. F. Hunter, Ecology, life history and Phylogeny of outbreak and nonoutbreak species,, in, (1995). doi: 10.1016/B978-012159270-7/50004-X.

[15]

B. P. Hurley, B. Slippers and M. J. Wingfield, A comparison of control results for the alien invasive woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, in the southern hemisphere,, Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 9 (2007), 159. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-9563.2007.00340.x.

[16]

E. T. Iede, S. R. Penteado and J. L. Bisol, Primeiro registro de ataque de Sirex noctilio em Pinus taeda no Brasil,, EMBRAPA-CNPF, (1988).

[17]

J. Koricheva, S. Larsson and E. Haukioja, Insect performance on experimentally stressed woody plants: A meta-analysis,, Annual Review of Entomology, 43 (1998), 196. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ento.43.1.195.

[18]

S. Kucherov, The reconstruction on Lymantria dispar outbreaks by dendrochronological methods in the south Urals,, in, (1991), 205.

[19]

A. Liebhold, E. Luzader, J. Halverson and G. Elmes, The spatial dynamics of invasions by exotic forest pests,, in, (1993), 125.

[20]

J. A. Logan, P. V. Bolstad, B. J. Bentz and D. L. Perkins, Assessing the effects of changing climate on Mountain Pine beetle dynamics,, in, (1995), 25.

[21]

J. Lubchenco, A. M. Olson, L. B. Brubaker, S. R. Carpenter, M. M. Holland, S. P. Hubbell, S. A. Levin, J. A. Macmahon, P. A. Matson, J. M. Melillo, H. A. Mooney, C. H. Peterson, H. R. Pulliam, L. A. Real, P. J. Regal and P. G. Risser, The Sustainable Biosphere Initiative: An ecological research agenda,, Ecology, 72 (1991), 371. doi: 10.2307/2937183.

[22]

D. Ludwig, D. D. Jones and C. S Holling, Qualitative analysis of insect outbreak systems: The spruce budworm and forest,, Journal of Animal Ecology, 47 (1978), 315. doi: 10.2307/3939.

[23]

J. L. Madden, Oviposition behavior of the woodwasp Sirex noctilio F.,, Australian Journal of Zoology, 22 (1974), 341. doi: 10.1071/ZO9740341.

[24]

J. L. Madden, Physiological aspects of host tree favourability for the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio f.,, Proc. Ecol. Soc. Aust., 3 (1968), 147.

[25]

J. L. Madden, Sirex in Australasia,, in, (1988), 407. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4899-0789-9_20.

[26]

M.-A. Moravie, A. C. Davison, D. Pasquier and P.-J. Charmillot, Bayesian forecasting of grape moth emergence,, Ecological Modelling, 197 (2006), 478. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.03.030.

[27]

F. D. Morgan and N. C. Stewart, The effects of Rhyssa persuasoria (L.) on the population of Sirex noctilio (F.),, Transaction of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 8 (1966), 31.

[28]

R. R. Mason, D. W. Scott, M. D. Loewen and H. G. Paul, Recurrent outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth in the Malheur National Forest: A case history,, Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-402, (1998).

[29]

F. G. Neumann and G. Minko, The sirex woodwasp in Australian radiata pine plantations,, Australian Forestry, 44 (1981), 46.

[30]

R. A. Obedzinski, J. M. Schmid, S. A. Mata, W. K. Olsen and R. R. Kessler, Growth of Ponderosa pine stands in relation to mountain pine beetle susceptibility,, Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-28, (1999).

[31]

M. Peltonen, A. M. Liebhold, O. N. Bjrnstad and D. W. Williams, Spatial synchrony in forest insect outbreaks: Roles of regional stochasticity and dispersal,, Ecology, 83 (2002), 3120.

[32]

G. B. Rawlings and N. M. Wilson, Sirex noctilio as a beneficial and destructive insect to Pinus radiata,, New Zealand Journal of Forestry, 6 (1949), 1.

[33]

J. D. Reeve, Environmental varibality, migration and persistence in host parasitoid systems,, American Naturalist, 32 (1988), 810.

[34]

T. Royama, "Analytical Population Dynamics,", Chapman & Hall, (1992).

[35]

K. Ryan and B. Hurley, Life History and Biology of Sirex noctilio,, in, (2012), 15.

[36]

A. V. Selikhovkin, D. L. Musolin and T. E. Sergeeva, Defoliating insects: history of outbreaks in the coniferous forests of Russia,, in, (1998).

[37]

A. A. Sharov, Integrating host, natural enemy, and other processes in population models of the pine sawfly,, in, (1991), 187.

[38]

A. A. Sharov, Modeling insect dynamics,, in, (1996), 6.

[39]

J. P. Spradbery and A. A. Kirk, Experimental studies on the responses of European siricid woodwasps to host trees,, Annals of Applied Biology, 98 (1981), 179. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7348.1981.tb00751.x.

[40]

J. P. Spradbery, The oviposition biology of siricid wasps in Europe,, Ecological Entomology, 2 (1977), 224.

[41]

J. P. Spradbery and A. A. Kirk, Aspects of the ecology of siricid woodwasps (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) in Europe, North Africa and Turkey with special reference to the biological control of Sirex noctilio F. in Australia,, Bulletin of Entomological Research, 68 (1978), 341. doi: 10.1017/S0007485300009330.

[42]

K. L. Taylor, Evaluation of insect parasitoids of Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) in Tasmania,, Oecologia, 32 (1978), 1. doi: 10.1007/BF00344686.

[43]

K. L. Taylor, The Sirex woodwasp: Ecology and control of an introduced forest insect,, in, (1981), 213.

[44]

O. Tenow, A. C. Nilssen, B. Holmgren and F. Elverum, An insect (Argyresthia retinella, Lep., Yponeumonidae) outbreack in northern birch forests, released by climatic changes?,, Journal of Applied Ecology, 36 (1999), 111.

[45]

G. D. Tribe, The woodwasp Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Siricidae), a pest of Pinus species, now established in South Africa,, African Entomology, 3 (1995), 216.

[46]

G. C. Varley and G. R. Gradwell, Population models for the winter moth, in, (1968), 132.

[47]

J. M. Villacide and J. C. Corley, Ecology of the woodwasp Sirex noctilio: Tackling the challenge of successful pest management,, International Journal of Pest Management, 58 (2012), 249.

[48]

R. M. Weseloh, Predicting Gypsy moth defoliation using spatially explicit information,, in, (1998).

[49]

J. W. Wilder, I. Christie and J. J. Colbert, Modelling of two-dimensional spatial effects on the spread of forest pests and their management,, Ecological Modelling, 82 (1995), 287. doi: 10.1016/0304-3800(95)00097-F.

[50]

Q. B. Zhang and R. I. Alfaro, Spatial synchrony of the two-year cycle budworm outbreaks in Central British Columbia, Canada,, Oikos, 102 (2003), 146. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0706.2003.12169.x.

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