Competing for customers in a social network
Pradeep Dubey Rahul Garg Bernard De Meyer
Customers' proclivities to buy products often depend heavily on who else is buying the same product. This gives rise to non-cooperative games in which firms sell to customers located in a ``social network''. Nash Equilibrium (NE) in pure strategies exist in general. In the quasi-linear case, NE are unique. If there are no a priori biases between customers and firms, there is a cut-off level above which high cost firms are blockaded at an NE, while the rest compete uniformly throughout the network. Otherwise firms could end up as regional monopolies.
    The connectivity of a customer is related to the money firms spend on him. This becomes particularly transparent when externalities are dominant: NE can be characterized in terms of the invariant measures on the recurrent classes of the Markov chain underlying the social network.
    When cost functions of firms are convex, instead of just linear, NE need no longer be unique as we show via an example. But uniqueness is restored if there is enough competition between firms or if their valuations of clients are anonymous.
    Finally we develop a general model of nonlinear externalities and show that existence of NE remains intact.
keywords: externalities noncooperative game Nash equilibrium. Social network
High-frequency instabilities of small-amplitude solutions of Hamiltonian PDEs
Deconinck Bernard Olga Trichtchenko

Generalizing ideas of MacKay, and MacKay and Saffman, a necessary condition for the presence of high-frequency (i.e., not modulational) instabilities of small-amplitude periodic solutions of Hamiltonian partial differential equations is presented, entirely in terms of the Hamiltonian of the linearized problem. With the exception of a Krein signature calculation, the theory is completely phrased in terms of the dispersion relation of the linear problem. The general theory changes as the Poisson structure of the Hamiltonian partial differential equation is changed. Two important cases of such Poisson structures are worked out in full generality. An example not fitting these two important cases is presented as well, using a candidate Boussinesq-Whitham equation.

keywords: Instability Hamiltonian partial differential equations Krein signature

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