In this paper, we study an anomalous diffusion model of Kirchhoff type driven by a nonlocal integro-differential operator. As a particular case, we are concerned with the following initial-boundary value problem involving the fractional $p$-Laplacian $\left\{ \begin{array}{*{35}{l}} {{\partial }_{t}}u+M([u]_{s, p}^{p}\text{)}(-\Delta)_{p}^{s}u=f(x, t) & \text{in }\Omega \times {{\mathbb{R}}^{+}}, {{\partial }_{t}}u=\partial u/\partial t, \\ u(x, 0)={{u}_{0}}(x) & \text{in }\Omega, \\ u=0\ & \text{in }{{\mathbb{R}}^{N}}\backslash \Omega, \\\end{array}\text{ }\ \ \right.$ where $[u]_{s, p}$ is the Gagliardo $p$-seminorm of $u$, $Ω\subset \mathbb{R}^N$ is a bounded domain with Lipschitz boundary $\partialΩ$, $1 < p < N/s$, with $0 < s < 1$, the main Kirchhoff function $M:\mathbb{R}^{ + }_{0} \to \mathbb{R}^{ + }$ is a continuous and nondecreasing function, $(-Δ)_p^s$ is the fractional $p$-Laplacian, $u_0$ is in $L^2(Ω)$ and $f∈ L^2_{\rm loc}(\mathbb{R}^{ + }_0;L^2(Ω))$. Under some appropriate conditions, the well-posedness of solutions for the problem above is studied by employing the sub-differential approach. Finally, the large-time behavior and extinction of solutions are also investigated.