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$u^((i))(a) = u^((i))(b), i=0,1,2,3,$

The difficulties in the odd derivatives are overcome due to the following arguments: the control on the third derivative is done by a Nagumo-type condition and the bounds on the first derivative are obtained by lower and upper solutions, not necessarily ordered.

By this technique, not only it is proved the existence of a periodic solution, but also, some qualitative properties of the solution can be obtained.

The high order impulsive problem considered is composed by the fully nonlinear equation \begin{equation*} u^{\left( n\right) }\left( x\right) =f\left( x,u\left( x\right) ,u^{\prime }\left( x\right) ,...,u^{\left( n-1\right) }\left( x\right) \right) \end{equation*} for a. e. $x\in I:=\left[ 0,1\right] ~\backslash ~\left\{ x_{1},...,x_{m}\right\} $ where $f:\left[ 0,1\right] \times \mathbb{R} ^{n}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is $L^{1}$-Carathéodory function, along with the periodic boundary conditions \begin{equation*} u^{\left( i\right) }\left( 0\right) =u^{\left( i\right) }\left( 1\right) , i=0,...,n-1, \end{equation*} and the impulsive conditions \begin{equation*} \begin{array}{c} u^{\left( i\right) }\left( x_{j}^{+}\right) =g_{j}^{i}\left( u\left( x_{j}\right) \right) , i=0,...,n-1, \end{array} \end{equation*} where $g_{j}^{i},$ for $j=1,...,m,$are given real valued functions satisfying some adequate conditions, and $x_{j}\in \left( 0,1\right) ,$ such that $0 = x_0 < x_1 <...< x_m < x_{m+1}=1.$

The arguments applied make use of the lower and upper solution method combined with an iterative technique, which is not necessarily monotone, together with classical results such as Lebesgue Dominated Convergence Theorem, Ascoli-Arzela Theorem and fixed point theory.

\begin{equation*} u^{(iv)} (x) + f( x,u(x) ,u^{\prime}(x) ,u^{\prime \prime}(x) ,u^{\prime \prime \prime}(x) ) = 0 \end{equation*} for $x\in [ 0,1] ,$ where $f:[ 0,1] \times \mathbb{R} ^{4} \to \mathbb{R}$ is a continuous functions, coupled with the Lidstone boundary conditions, \begin{equation*} u(0) = u(1) = u^{\prime \prime}(0) = u^{\prime \prime }(1) = 0. \end{equation*}

They discuss how different definitions of lower and upper solutions can generalize existence and location results for boundary value problems with Lidstone boundary data. In addition, they replace the usual bilateral Nagumo condition by a one-sided condition, allowing the nonlinearity to be unbounded$.$ An example will show that this unilateral condition generalizes the usual one and stress the potentialities of the new definitions.

$\u^{( n)} (x)=f(x,u(x),u^{'}(x),\ldots ,u^{( n-1)} (x)) $

with $n\in \mathbb{N}$ such that $n\geq 2,$ $f:[ a,b] \times \mathbb{R}^{n}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ a continuous function, and the two-point boundary conditions

$u^{(i)}(a) =A_{i},\text{ \ \ }A_{i}\in \mathbb{R},\text{ \
}i=0,\ldots
,n-3$,

$u^{( n-1) }(a) =u^{( n-1) }(b)=0.$

From one-sided Nagumo-type condition, allowing that $f$ can be
unbounded, it is obtained an existence and location result, that
is, besides the existence, given by Leray-Schauder topological
degree, some bounds on the solution and its derivatives till order
$(n-2)$ are given by well ordered lower and upper solutions.

An application to a continuous model of human-spine, via beam
theory, will be presented.

The arguments used apply lower and upper solutions technique and topological degree theory.

An application is made to a continuous model of the human spine, used in aircraft ejections, vehicle crash situations, and some forms of scoliosis.

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