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### Open Access Journals

NHM

We address here the issue of congestion in the modeling of crowd
motion, in the non-smooth framework: contacts between people are not
anticipated and avoided, they actually occur, and they are explicitly taken into account in the model.
We limit our approach to very basic principles in terms of behavior, to focus on the particular problems raised by the non-smooth character of the models. We consider that individuals tend to move according to a desired, or spontaneous, velocity. We account for congestion by assuming that the evolution realizes at each time an instantaneous balance between individual tendencies and global constraints (overlapping is forbidden):
the actual velocity is defined as the closest to the desired velocity among all admissible ones, in a least square sense.
We develop those principles in the microscopic and macroscopic settings, and we present how the framework of Wasserstein distance between measures allows to recover the

*sweeping process*nature of the problem on the macroscopic level, which makes it possible to obtain existence results in spite of the non-smooth character of the evolution process. Micro and macro approaches are compared, and we investigate the similarities together with deep differences of those two levels of description.
DCDS

Optimal mass transportation can be traced back to Gaspard Monge's paper in 1781. There, for engineering/military reasons, he was studying how to minimize the cost of transporting a given distribution of mass from one location to another, giving rise to a challenging mathematical problem. This problem, an optimization problem in a certain class of maps, had to wait for almost two centuries before seeing significant progress (starting with Leonid Kantorovich in 1942), even on the very fundamental question of the existence of an optimal map.
Due to these connections with several other areas of pure and applied mathematics, optimal transportation has received much renewed attention in the last twenty years. Indeed, it has become an increasingly common and powerful tool at the interface between partial differential equations, fluid mechanics, geometry, probability theory, and functional analysis. At the same time, it has led to significant developments in applied mathematics, with applications ranging from economics, biology, meteorology, design, to image processing.
Because of the success and impact that this subject is still receiving, we decided to create a special issue collecting selected papers from leading experts in the area.

For more information please click the “Full Text” above.

For more information please click the “Full Text” above.

keywords:

DCDS

We consider two models for branched transport: the one introduced in Bernot et al. (Publ Mat 49:417-451, 2005), which makes use of
a functional defined on measures over the space of Lipschitz paths, and the path
functional model presented in Brancolini et al. (J Eur Math Soc 8:415-434, 2006), where one minimizes some suitable action functional defined
over the space of measure-valued Lipschitz curves, getting sort of a Riemannian metric on the space of probabilities, favouring atomic measures, with a cost depending on the masses of each of their atoms.
We prove that modifying the latter model according to Brasco (Ann Mat Pura Appl 189:95-125, 2010), then the two models turn out to be equivalent.

NHM

Starting from a continuous congested traffic framework recently introduced in [8], we present a consistent numerical scheme to compute equilibrium metrics. We show that equilibrium metric is the solution of a variational problem involving geodesic distances. Our discretization scheme is based on the Fast Marching Method. Convergence is proved via a $\Gamma$-convergence result and numerical results are given.

NHM

We consider a typical problem in Mean Field Games: the congestion case, where in the cost that agents optimize there is a penalization for passing through zones with high density of agents, in a deterministic framework. This equilibrium problem is known to be equivalent to the optimization of a global functional including an $L^p$ norm of the density. The question arises as to produce a similar model replacing the $L^p$ penalization with an $L^\infty$ constraint, but the simplest approaches do not give meaningful definitions. Taking into account recent works about crowd motion, where the density constraint $\rho\leq 1$ was treated in terms of projections of the velocity field onto the set of admissible velocity (with a constraint on the divergence) and a pressure field was introduced, we propose a definition and write a system of PDEs including the usual Hamilton-Jacobi equation coupled with the continuity equation. For this system, we analyze an example and propose some open problems.

NHM

We consider the problem of the optimal location of a Dirichlet region in a two-dimensional domain $\Omega$ subject to a force $f$ in order to minimize the compliance of the configuration. The class of admissible Dirichlet regions among which we look for the optimum consists of all one-dimensional connected sets (networks) of a given length $L$. Then we let $L$ tend to infinity and look for the $\Gamma$-limit of suitably rescaled functionals, in order to identify the asymptotical distribution of the optimal networks. The asymptotically optimal shapes are discussed as well and links with average distance problems are provided.

DCDS

In order to observe growth phenomena in biology where dendritic shapes appear, we propose a simple model where a given population evolves feeded by a diffusing nutriment, but is subject to a density constraint. The particles (e.g., cells) of the population spontaneously stay passive at rest, and only move in order to satisfy the constraint $\rho\leq 1$, by choosing the minimal correction velocity so as to prevent overcongestion. We treat this constraint by means of projections in the space of densities endowed with the Wasserstein distance $W_2$, defined through optimal transport. This allows to provide an existence result and suggests some numerical computations, in the same spirit of what the authors did for crowd motion (but with extra difficulties, essentially due to the fact that the total mass may increase). The numerical simulations show, according to the values of the parameter and in particular of the diffusion coefficient of the nutriment, the formation of dendritic patterns in the space occupied by cells.

DCDS

This paper slightly improves a classical result by Gangbo and McCann (1996) about the structure of optimal transport plans for costs that are strictly concave and increasing functions of the Euclidean distance.
Since the main difficulty for proving the existence of an optimal map comes from the possible singularity of the cost at $0$, everything is quite easy if the supports of the two measures are disjoint;
Gangbo and McCann proved the result under the assumption $\mu(supp(\mathbf{v}))=0$;
in this paper we replace this assumption with the fact that the two measures are singular to each other. In this case it is possible to prove the existence of an optimal transport map, provided the starting measure $\mu$ does not give mass to small sets (i.e. $(d\!-\!1)-$rectifiable sets). When the measures are not singular the optimal transport plan decomposes into two parts, one concentrated on the diagonal and the other being a transport map between mutually singular measures.

keywords:
Monge-Kantorovich
,
rectifiable sets
,
approximate gradient
,
density points.
,
transport maps

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