August  2020, 14(3): 467-476. doi: 10.3934/amc.2020064

A shape-gain approach for vector quantization based on flat tori

1. 

State University of Goias, Anapolis, GO 75132-903, Brazil

2. 

School of Applied Sciences, University of Campinas, Limeira, SP 13484-350, Brazil

 

Received  December 2018 Revised  September 2019 Published  August 2020 Early access  January 2020

Fund Project: This research is supported by the Sao Paulo Research Foundation, FAPESP, grant 13/25977-7

In this paper we present a vector quantization framework for Gaussian sources which combines a spherical code on layers of flat tori and the shape and gain technique. The basic concepts of spherical codes in tori layers are reviewed and two constructions are presented for the shape by exploiting the $ k/2 $-dimensional lattices $ D_{k/2} $ and $ A^{*}_{k/2} $ as its pre-image. A scalar quantizer is optimized for the gain by using the Lloyd-Max algorithm for a given rate. The computational complexity of the quantization process is dominated by the lattice decoding process, which is linear for the $ D_{k/2} $ lattice and quadratic for the $ A^{*}_{k/2} $ lattice. The proposed quantizer is described in details and some numerical results are presented in terms of the SNR as a function of the quantization rate, in bits per dimension. The results show that the quantizer designed from the $ D_4 $ lattice outperform previous records when the rate is equal to 1 bit per dimension. These quantizer also outperform the quantizers designed from the dual lattice $ A^{*} $ for all rates tested. In general the two proposed frameworks perform within 2 dB of the rate distortion function, which may be a good trade-off considering their low computational complexity.

Citation: Fabiano Boaventura de Miranda, Cristiano Torezzan. A shape-gain approach for vector quantization based on flat tori. Advances in Mathematics of Communications, 2020, 14 (3) : 467-476. doi: 10.3934/amc.2020064
References:
[1]

T. BergerF. Jelinek and J. K. Wolf, Permutation codes for sources, IEEE Transaction on Infomation Theory, IT-18 (1972), 160-169.  doi: 10.1109/tit.1972.1054729.

[2]

J. H. Conway and N. J. A. Sloane, Sphere-Packings, Lattices, and Groups, Third edition, Grundlehren der Mathematischen Wissenschaften, 290. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1999. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4757-6568-7.

[3]

A. E. GamalL. HemachandraI. Shperling and V. Wei, Using simulated annealing to design good codes, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 33 (1987), 116-123.  doi: 10.1109/TIT.1987.1057277.

[4]

A. Gersho and R. M.Gray, Vector Quantization and Signal Compression, 8$^{th}$ edition, Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York, 2001. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4615-3626-0.

[5]

J. Hamkins and K. Zeger, Asymptotically dense spherical codes. Ⅰ. Wrapped spherical codes, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 43 (1997), 1774-1785.  doi: 10.1109/18.641544.

[6]

J. Hamkins and K. Zeger, Asymptotically dense spherical codes. Ⅱ. Laminated spherical codes, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 43 (1997), 1786-1798.  doi: 10.1109/18.641545.

[7]

J. Hamkins and K. Zeger, Gaussian source coding with spherical codes, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 48 (2002), 2980-2989.  doi: 10.1109/TIT.2002.804056.

[8]

F. B. Miranda and C. Torezzan, A shape-gain approach for vector quantization based on flat tori and dual lattices $A^{*}_{n}$, Latin American Week on Coding and Information, (2018).

[9]

F. B. Miranda and C. Torezzan, Quantização vetorial utilizando códigos esféricos em camadas de toros, XXXV Simpósio Brasileiro de Telecomunicaçoes e Processamento de Sinais, (2017), 230–234.

[10]

C. E. Shannon, Probability of error for optimal codes in a Gaussian channel, The Bell System Technical Journal, 38 (1959), 611-656.  doi: 10.1002/j.1538-7305.1959.tb03905.x.

[11]

J. E. Strapasson and C. Torezzan, A heuristic approach for designing cyclic group codes, International Transactions in Operational Research, 23 (2016), 883-896.  doi: 10.1111/itor.12238.

[12]

C. TorezzanS. I. R. Costa and V. A. Vaishampayan, Constructive spherical codes on layers of flat tori, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, 59 (2013), 6655-6663.  doi: 10.1109/TIT.2013.2272931.

[13] R. Zamir, Lattice Coding for Signals and Networks, 1$^{st}$ edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2014. 

show all references

References:
[1]

T. BergerF. Jelinek and J. K. Wolf, Permutation codes for sources, IEEE Transaction on Infomation Theory, IT-18 (1972), 160-169.  doi: 10.1109/tit.1972.1054729.

[2]

J. H. Conway and N. J. A. Sloane, Sphere-Packings, Lattices, and Groups, Third edition, Grundlehren der Mathematischen Wissenschaften, 290. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1999. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4757-6568-7.

[3]

A. E. GamalL. HemachandraI. Shperling and V. Wei, Using simulated annealing to design good codes, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 33 (1987), 116-123.  doi: 10.1109/TIT.1987.1057277.

[4]

A. Gersho and R. M.Gray, Vector Quantization and Signal Compression, 8$^{th}$ edition, Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York, 2001. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4615-3626-0.

[5]

J. Hamkins and K. Zeger, Asymptotically dense spherical codes. Ⅰ. Wrapped spherical codes, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 43 (1997), 1774-1785.  doi: 10.1109/18.641544.

[6]

J. Hamkins and K. Zeger, Asymptotically dense spherical codes. Ⅱ. Laminated spherical codes, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 43 (1997), 1786-1798.  doi: 10.1109/18.641545.

[7]

J. Hamkins and K. Zeger, Gaussian source coding with spherical codes, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 48 (2002), 2980-2989.  doi: 10.1109/TIT.2002.804056.

[8]

F. B. Miranda and C. Torezzan, A shape-gain approach for vector quantization based on flat tori and dual lattices $A^{*}_{n}$, Latin American Week on Coding and Information, (2018).

[9]

F. B. Miranda and C. Torezzan, Quantização vetorial utilizando códigos esféricos em camadas de toros, XXXV Simpósio Brasileiro de Telecomunicaçoes e Processamento de Sinais, (2017), 230–234.

[10]

C. E. Shannon, Probability of error for optimal codes in a Gaussian channel, The Bell System Technical Journal, 38 (1959), 611-656.  doi: 10.1002/j.1538-7305.1959.tb03905.x.

[11]

J. E. Strapasson and C. Torezzan, A heuristic approach for designing cyclic group codes, International Transactions in Operational Research, 23 (2016), 883-896.  doi: 10.1111/itor.12238.

[12]

C. TorezzanS. I. R. Costa and V. A. Vaishampayan, Constructive spherical codes on layers of flat tori, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, 59 (2013), 6655-6663.  doi: 10.1109/TIT.2013.2272931.

[13] R. Zamir, Lattice Coding for Signals and Networks, 1$^{st}$ edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2014. 
Figure 1.  Illustration of the quantization process in $ \mathbb{R}^2 $
Figure 2.  Equivalent radiuses of a rectangular cell. The figure shows $ r_{cov} $, $ r_{pack} $ and $ r_{eff} $ as well as $ r_{\sigma^2} $ (the radius of a ball with the same second moment). We clearly have $ r_{pack} < r_{eff} < r_{\sigma^2} < r_{cov} $ [13]
Figure 3.  Example of a spherical code $ C(3,100)_+\subset \mathbb{R}^{3} $ that represents 100 flat tori in $ S^{5} \subset \mathbb{R}^{6} $
Figure 4.  Illustration of the construction of a torus layer spherical code $ C_T(4, M) $
Figure 5.  Illustration of the quantization process of a vector x
Figure 6.  SNR as a function of the number of tori, for rate $ R = 3 $ and dimensions 4, 6 and 8
Table 1.  Comparison of the vector quantizer performance for $ C_T(k, M) $ with previous results presented in [7]
rate (bits/dimension)
Quantizer 1 2 3 4 5 6
Rate-distortion bound (7) 6.02 12.04 18.06 24.08 30.10 36.12
VQ using $ W_{\Lambda_{24}} $ 2.44 11.02 17.36 23.33 29.29 35.27
VQ using $ C_T(k, M) $ and $ D_4 $ 4.62 10.35 16.30 22.26 28.21 34.03
VQ using $ C_T(k, M) $ and $ A_{n}^{*} $ $ 4.45_\textbf{4} $ $ 10.05_\textbf{8} $ $ 16.16_\textbf{8} $ $ 22.05_\textbf{8} $ $ 27.93_\textbf{8} $ $ 33.34_\textbf{6} $
Lloyd-Max EQ 4.40 9.30 14.62 20.22 26.02 31.89
Uniform EQ 4.40 9.25 14.27 19.38 24.57 29.83
rate (bits/dimension)
Quantizer 1 2 3 4 5 6
Rate-distortion bound (7) 6.02 12.04 18.06 24.08 30.10 36.12
VQ using $ W_{\Lambda_{24}} $ 2.44 11.02 17.36 23.33 29.29 35.27
VQ using $ C_T(k, M) $ and $ D_4 $ 4.62 10.35 16.30 22.26 28.21 34.03
VQ using $ C_T(k, M) $ and $ A_{n}^{*} $ $ 4.45_\textbf{4} $ $ 10.05_\textbf{8} $ $ 16.16_\textbf{8} $ $ 22.05_\textbf{8} $ $ 27.93_\textbf{8} $ $ 33.34_\textbf{6} $
Lloyd-Max EQ 4.40 9.30 14.62 20.22 26.02 31.89
Uniform EQ 4.40 9.25 14.27 19.38 24.57 29.83
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