    doi: 10.3934/amc.2021008

## On the correlation measures of orders $3$ and $4$ of binary sequence of period $p^2$ derived from Fermat quotients

 Research Center for Number Theory and Its Applications, School of Mathematics, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127, China

* Corresponding author: Huaning Liu

Received  October 2020 Revised  February 2021 Published  April 2021

Let
 $p$
be a prime and let
 $n$
be an integer with
 $(n, p) = 1$
. The Fermat quotient
 $q_p(n)$
is defined as
 $q_p(n)\equiv \frac{n^{p-1}-1}{p} \ (\bmod\ p), \quad 0\leq q_p(n)\leq p-1.$
We also define
 $q_p(kp) = 0$
for
 $k\in \mathbb{Z}$
. Chen, Ostafe and Winterhof constructed the binary sequence
 $E_{p^2} = \left(e_0, e_1, \cdots, e_{p^2-1}\right)\in \{0, 1\}^{p^2}$
as
 $\begin{equation*} \begin{split} e_{n} = \left\{\begin{array}{ll} 0, & \hbox{if }\ 0\leq \frac{q_p(n)}{p}<\frac{1}{2}, \\ 1, & \hbox{if }\ \frac{1}{2}\leq \frac{q_p(n)}{p}<1, \end{array} \right. \end{split} \end{equation*}$
and studied the well-distribution measure and correlation measure of order
 $2$
by using estimates for exponential sums of Fermat quotients. In this paper we further study the correlation measures of the sequence. Our results show that the correlation measure of order
 $3$
is quite good, but the
 $4$
-order correlation measure of the sequence is very large.
Citation: Huaning Liu, Xi Liu. On the correlation measures of orders $3$ and $4$ of binary sequence of period $p^2$ derived from Fermat quotients. Advances in Mathematics of Communications, doi: 10.3934/amc.2021008
##### References:
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##### References:
  H. Aly and A. Winterhof, Boolean functions derived from Fermat quotients, Cryptogr. Commun., 3 (2011), 165-174.  doi: 10.1007/s12095-011-0043-5.  Google Scholar  M.-C. Chang, Short character sums with Fermat quotients, Acta Arith., 152 (2012), 23-38.  doi: 10.4064/aa152-1-3.  Google Scholar  Z. Chen, Trace representation and linear complexity of binary sequences derived from Fermat quotients, Sci. China Inf. Sci., 57 (2014), 112109, 10 pp. doi: 10.1007/s11432-014-5092-x.  Google Scholar  Z. Chen and X. Du, On the linear complexity of binary threshold sequences derived from Fermat quotients, Des. Codes Cryptogr., 67 (2013), 317-323.  doi: 10.1007/s10623-012-9608-3.  Google Scholar  Z. Chen, L. Hu and X. Du, Linear complexity of some binary sequences derived from Fermat quotients, China Commun., 9 (2012), 105-108.   Google Scholar  Z. Chen, A. Ostafe and A. Winterhof, Structure of pseudorandom numbers derived from Fermat quotients, In Arithmetic of Finite Fields, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6087, Springer, Berlin, (2010), 73-85. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-13797-6_6.  Google Scholar  Z. Chen and A. Winterhof, Interpolation of Fermat quotients, SIAM J. Discr. Math., 28 (2014), 1-7.  doi: 10.1137/130907951.  Google Scholar  X. Du, A. Klapper and Z. Chen, Linear complexity of pseudorandom sequences generated by Fermat quotients and their generalizations, Inform. Process. Lett., 112 (2012), 233-237.  doi: 10.1016/j.ipl.2011.11.017.  Google Scholar  D. Gomez and A. Winterhof, Multiplicative character sums of Fermat quotients and pseudorandom sequences, Period. Math. Hungar., 64 (2012), 161-168.  doi: 10.1007/s10998-012-3747-1.  Google Scholar  D. R. Heath-Brown, An estimate for Heilbronn's exponential sum, In Analytic Number Theory, Proceedings of a Conference in Honor of Heini Halberstam, Progr. Math., Birkhäuser, Boston, 139 (1996), 451-463. Google Scholar  C. Mauduit and A. Sárközy, On finite pseudorandom binary sequencs I: Measure of pseudorandomness, the Legendre symbol, Acta Arith., 82 (1997), 365-377.  doi: 10.4064/aa-82-4-365-377.  Google Scholar  A. Ostafe and I. E. Shparlinski, Pseudorandomness and dynamics of Fermat quotients, SIAM J. Discr. Math., 25 (2011), 50-71.  doi: 10.1137/100798466.  Google Scholar  I. E. Shparlinskii, Fermat quotients: Exponential sums, value set and primitive roots, Bull. Lond. Math. Soc., 43 (2011), 1228-1238.  doi: 10.1112/blms/bdr058.  Google Scholar  I. E. Shparlinski, Character sums with Fermat quotients, Quart. J. Math., 62 (2011), 1031-1043.  doi: 10.1093/qmath/haq028.  Google Scholar  I. E. Shparlinski, Bounds of multiplicative character sums with Fermat quotients of primes, Bull. Aust. Math. Soc., 83 (2011), 456-462.  doi: 10.1017/S000497271000198X.  Google Scholar
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