November  2014, 13(6): 2155-2175. doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2014.13.2155

Complex Powers of the Laplacian on Affine Nested Fractals as Calderón-Zygmund operators

1. 

Department of Mathematics, United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD, 21402, United States

2. 

Department of Mathematics, University of Connecticut, Storrs CT 06269-3009

Received  June 2011 Revised  July 2012 Published  July 2014

We give the first natural examples of Calderón-Zygmund operators in the theory of analysis on post-critically finite self-similar fractals. This is achieved by showing that the purely imaginary Riesz and Bessel potentials on nested fractals with $3$ or more boundary points are of this type. It follows that these operators are bounded on $L^{p}$, $1 < p < \infty$ and satisfy weak $1$-$1$ bounds. The analysis may be extended to infinite blow-ups of these fractals, and to product spaces based on the fractal or its blow-up.
Citation: Marius Ionescu, Luke G. Rogers. Complex Powers of the Laplacian on Affine Nested Fractals as Calderón-Zygmund operators. Communications on Pure & Applied Analysis, 2014, 13 (6) : 2155-2175. doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2014.13.2155
References:
[1]

Martin T. Barlow and Edwin A. Perkins, Brownian motion on the Sierpiński gasket,, \emph{Probab. Theory Related Fields}, 79 (1988), 543.   Google Scholar

[2]

Oren Ben-Bassat, Robert S. Strichartz and Alexander Teplyaev, What is not in the domain of the Laplacian on Sierpinski gasket type fractals,, \emph{J. Funct. Anal.}, 166 (1999), 197.   Google Scholar

[3]

E. B. Davies, Heat Kernels and Spectral Theory,, Cambridge Tracts in Mathematics, (1990).   Google Scholar

[4]

Pat J. Fitzsimmons, Ben M. Hambly and Takashi Kumagai, Transition density estimates for Brownian motion on affine nested fractals,, \emph{Comm. Math. Phys.}, 165 (1994), 595.   Google Scholar

[5]

Gerald B. Folland, Real Analysis,, Pure and Applied Mathematics, (1999).   Google Scholar

[6]

M. Fukushima and T. Shima, On a spectral analysis for the Sierpiński gasket,, \emph{Potential Anal.}, 1 (1992), 1.  doi: 10.1007/BF00249784.  Google Scholar

[7]

B. M. Hambly and T. Kumagai, Transition density estimates for diffusion processes on post critically finite self-similar fractals,, \emph{Proc. London Math. Soc.}, 78 (1999), 431.   Google Scholar

[8]

B. M. Hambly and T. Kumagai, Diffusion processes on fractal fields: heat kernel estimates and large deviations,, \emph{Probab. Theory Related Fields}, 127 (2003), 305.   Google Scholar

[9]

Jiaxin Hu and Martina Zähle, Potential spaces on fractals,, \emph{Studia Math.}, 170 (2005), 259.  doi: 10.4064/sm170-3-4.  Google Scholar

[10]

Jiaxin Hu and Martina Zähle, Generalized Bessel and Riesz potentials on metric measure spaces,, \emph{Potential Anal.}, 30 (2009), 315.  doi: 10.1007/s11118-009-9117-9.  Google Scholar

[11]

John E. Hutchinson, Fractals and self-similarity,, \emph{Indiana Univ. Math. J.}, 30 (1981), 713.  doi: 10.1512/iumj.1981.30.30055.  Google Scholar

[12]

Jun Kigami, Analysis on Fractals,, Cambridge Tracts in Mathematics, (2001).   Google Scholar

[13]

Jun Kigami, Harmonic analysis for resistance forms,, \emph{J. Funct. Anal.}, 204 (2003), 399.  doi: 10.1016/S0022-1236(02)00149-0.  Google Scholar

[14]

Tom Lindstrøm, Brownian motion on nested fractals,, \emph{Mem. Amer. Math. Soc.}, 83 (1990).   Google Scholar

[15]

Jonathan Needleman, Robert S. Strichartz, Alexander Teplyaev and Po-Lam Yung, Calculus on the Sierpinski gasket. I. Polynomials, exponentials and power series,, \emph{J. Funct. Anal.}, 215 (2004), 290.  doi: 10.1016/j.jfa.2003.11.011.  Google Scholar

[16]

Luke G. Rogers, Estimates for the resolvent kernel of the Laplacian on p.c.f. self-similar fractals and blowups,, \emph{Trans. Amer. Math. Soc.}, 364 (2012), 1633.  doi: 10.1090/S0002-9947-2011-05551-0.  Google Scholar

[17]

Christophe Sabot, Pure point spectrum for the Laplacian on unbounded nested fractals,, \emph{J. Funct. Anal.}, 173 (2000), 497.   Google Scholar

[18]

R. T. Seeley, Complex powers of an elliptic operator,, \emph{Singular Integrals} (Proc. Sympos. Pure Math., (1966), 288.   Google Scholar

[19]

R. T. Seeley, Analytic extension of the trace associated with elliptic boundary problems,, \emph{Amer. J. Math.}, 91 (1969), 963.   Google Scholar

[20]

Adam Sikora, Multivariable spectral multipliers and analysis of quasielliptic operators on fractals,, \emph{Indiana Univ. Math. J.}, 58 (2009), 317.  doi: 10.1512/iumj.2009.58.3745.  Google Scholar

[21]

Elias M. Stein, Singular Integrals and Differentiability Properties of Functions,, Princeton Mathematical Series, (1970).   Google Scholar

[22]

Elias M. Stein, Topics in Harmonic Analysis Related to the Littlewood-Paley Theory,, Annals of Mathematics Studies, (1970).   Google Scholar

[23]

Elias M. Stein, Harmonic Analysis: Real-variable Methods, Orthogonality, and Oscillatory Integrals,, Princeton Mathematical Series, (1993).   Google Scholar

[24]

Elias M. Stein and Rami Shakarchi, Complex Analysis,, Princeton Lectures in Analysis, (2003).   Google Scholar

[25]

Robert S. Strichartz, Fractals in the large,, \emph{Canad. J. Math.}, 50 (1998), 638.   Google Scholar

[26]

Robert S. Strichartz, Fractafolds based on the Sierpiński gasket and their spectra,, \emph{Trans. Amer. Math. Soc.}, 355 (2003), 4019.   Google Scholar

[27]

Robert S. Strichartz, Function spaces on fractals,, \emph{J. Funct. Anal.}, 198 (2003), 43.   Google Scholar

[28]

Robert S. Strichartz, Analysis on products of fractals,, \emph{Trans. Amer. Math. Soc.}, 357 (2005), 571.   Google Scholar

[29]

Robert S. Strichartz, Differential Equations on Fractals,, A tutorial, (2006).   Google Scholar

[30]

Robert S. Strichartz, A fractal quantum mechanical model with Coulomb potential,, \emph{Commun. Pure Appl. Anal.}, 8 (2009), 743.  doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2009.8.743.  Google Scholar

[31]

Michael E. Taylor, Pseudodifferential Operators,, Princeton Mathematical Series, (1981).   Google Scholar

[32]

Alexander Teplyaev, Spectral analysis on infinite Sierpiński gaskets,, \emph{J. Funct. Anal.}, 159 (1998), 537.   Google Scholar

[33]

Xuan Thinh Duong, El Maati Ouhabaz and Adam Sikora, Plancherel-type estimates and sharp spectral multipliers,, \emph{J. Funct. Anal.}, 196 (2002), 443.   Google Scholar

show all references

References:
[1]

Martin T. Barlow and Edwin A. Perkins, Brownian motion on the Sierpiński gasket,, \emph{Probab. Theory Related Fields}, 79 (1988), 543.   Google Scholar

[2]

Oren Ben-Bassat, Robert S. Strichartz and Alexander Teplyaev, What is not in the domain of the Laplacian on Sierpinski gasket type fractals,, \emph{J. Funct. Anal.}, 166 (1999), 197.   Google Scholar

[3]

E. B. Davies, Heat Kernels and Spectral Theory,, Cambridge Tracts in Mathematics, (1990).   Google Scholar

[4]

Pat J. Fitzsimmons, Ben M. Hambly and Takashi Kumagai, Transition density estimates for Brownian motion on affine nested fractals,, \emph{Comm. Math. Phys.}, 165 (1994), 595.   Google Scholar

[5]

Gerald B. Folland, Real Analysis,, Pure and Applied Mathematics, (1999).   Google Scholar

[6]

M. Fukushima and T. Shima, On a spectral analysis for the Sierpiński gasket,, \emph{Potential Anal.}, 1 (1992), 1.  doi: 10.1007/BF00249784.  Google Scholar

[7]

B. M. Hambly and T. Kumagai, Transition density estimates for diffusion processes on post critically finite self-similar fractals,, \emph{Proc. London Math. Soc.}, 78 (1999), 431.   Google Scholar

[8]

B. M. Hambly and T. Kumagai, Diffusion processes on fractal fields: heat kernel estimates and large deviations,, \emph{Probab. Theory Related Fields}, 127 (2003), 305.   Google Scholar

[9]

Jiaxin Hu and Martina Zähle, Potential spaces on fractals,, \emph{Studia Math.}, 170 (2005), 259.  doi: 10.4064/sm170-3-4.  Google Scholar

[10]

Jiaxin Hu and Martina Zähle, Generalized Bessel and Riesz potentials on metric measure spaces,, \emph{Potential Anal.}, 30 (2009), 315.  doi: 10.1007/s11118-009-9117-9.  Google Scholar

[11]

John E. Hutchinson, Fractals and self-similarity,, \emph{Indiana Univ. Math. J.}, 30 (1981), 713.  doi: 10.1512/iumj.1981.30.30055.  Google Scholar

[12]

Jun Kigami, Analysis on Fractals,, Cambridge Tracts in Mathematics, (2001).   Google Scholar

[13]

Jun Kigami, Harmonic analysis for resistance forms,, \emph{J. Funct. Anal.}, 204 (2003), 399.  doi: 10.1016/S0022-1236(02)00149-0.  Google Scholar

[14]

Tom Lindstrøm, Brownian motion on nested fractals,, \emph{Mem. Amer. Math. Soc.}, 83 (1990).   Google Scholar

[15]

Jonathan Needleman, Robert S. Strichartz, Alexander Teplyaev and Po-Lam Yung, Calculus on the Sierpinski gasket. I. Polynomials, exponentials and power series,, \emph{J. Funct. Anal.}, 215 (2004), 290.  doi: 10.1016/j.jfa.2003.11.011.  Google Scholar

[16]

Luke G. Rogers, Estimates for the resolvent kernel of the Laplacian on p.c.f. self-similar fractals and blowups,, \emph{Trans. Amer. Math. Soc.}, 364 (2012), 1633.  doi: 10.1090/S0002-9947-2011-05551-0.  Google Scholar

[17]

Christophe Sabot, Pure point spectrum for the Laplacian on unbounded nested fractals,, \emph{J. Funct. Anal.}, 173 (2000), 497.   Google Scholar

[18]

R. T. Seeley, Complex powers of an elliptic operator,, \emph{Singular Integrals} (Proc. Sympos. Pure Math., (1966), 288.   Google Scholar

[19]

R. T. Seeley, Analytic extension of the trace associated with elliptic boundary problems,, \emph{Amer. J. Math.}, 91 (1969), 963.   Google Scholar

[20]

Adam Sikora, Multivariable spectral multipliers and analysis of quasielliptic operators on fractals,, \emph{Indiana Univ. Math. J.}, 58 (2009), 317.  doi: 10.1512/iumj.2009.58.3745.  Google Scholar

[21]

Elias M. Stein, Singular Integrals and Differentiability Properties of Functions,, Princeton Mathematical Series, (1970).   Google Scholar

[22]

Elias M. Stein, Topics in Harmonic Analysis Related to the Littlewood-Paley Theory,, Annals of Mathematics Studies, (1970).   Google Scholar

[23]

Elias M. Stein, Harmonic Analysis: Real-variable Methods, Orthogonality, and Oscillatory Integrals,, Princeton Mathematical Series, (1993).   Google Scholar

[24]

Elias M. Stein and Rami Shakarchi, Complex Analysis,, Princeton Lectures in Analysis, (2003).   Google Scholar

[25]

Robert S. Strichartz, Fractals in the large,, \emph{Canad. J. Math.}, 50 (1998), 638.   Google Scholar

[26]

Robert S. Strichartz, Fractafolds based on the Sierpiński gasket and their spectra,, \emph{Trans. Amer. Math. Soc.}, 355 (2003), 4019.   Google Scholar

[27]

Robert S. Strichartz, Function spaces on fractals,, \emph{J. Funct. Anal.}, 198 (2003), 43.   Google Scholar

[28]

Robert S. Strichartz, Analysis on products of fractals,, \emph{Trans. Amer. Math. Soc.}, 357 (2005), 571.   Google Scholar

[29]

Robert S. Strichartz, Differential Equations on Fractals,, A tutorial, (2006).   Google Scholar

[30]

Robert S. Strichartz, A fractal quantum mechanical model with Coulomb potential,, \emph{Commun. Pure Appl. Anal.}, 8 (2009), 743.  doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2009.8.743.  Google Scholar

[31]

Michael E. Taylor, Pseudodifferential Operators,, Princeton Mathematical Series, (1981).   Google Scholar

[32]

Alexander Teplyaev, Spectral analysis on infinite Sierpiński gaskets,, \emph{J. Funct. Anal.}, 159 (1998), 537.   Google Scholar

[33]

Xuan Thinh Duong, El Maati Ouhabaz and Adam Sikora, Plancherel-type estimates and sharp spectral multipliers,, \emph{J. Funct. Anal.}, 196 (2002), 443.   Google Scholar

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