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May  2019, 18(3): 1139-1154. doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2019055

## Analysis of positive solutions for a class of semipositone p-Laplacian problems with nonlinear boundary conditions

 1 Department of Mathematics Education, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea 2 Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27412, USA 3 Department of Mathematics, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610, Korea 4 Department of Mathematics, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA

* Corresponding author: Inbo Sim

Received  February 2018 Revised  August 2018 Published  November 2018

Fund Project: The third author is supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korea Government (MEST) (NRF-2018R1D1A3A03000678).

We study positive solutions to (singular) boundary value problems of the form:
 \left\{ \begin{align} & -\left( {{\varphi }_{p}}(u') \right)'=\lambda h(t)\frac{f(u)}{{{u}^{\alpha }}},~\ \ t\in (0,1),~~ \\ & u'(1)+c(u(1))u(1)=0,~ \\ & u(0)=0, \\ \end{align} \right.
where
 $\varphi_p(u): = |u|^{p-2}u$
with
 $p>1$
is the
 $p$
-Laplacian operator of
 $u$
,
 $λ>0$
,
 $0≤α<1$
,
 $c:[0,∞)\rightarrow (0,∞)$
is continuous and
 $h:(0,1)\rightarrow (0,∞)$
is continuous and integrable. We assume that
 $f∈ C[0,∞)$
is such that
 $f(0)<0$
,
 $\lim_{s\rightarrow ∞}f(s) = ∞$
and
 $\frac{f(s)}{s^{α}}$
has a
 $p$
-sublinear growth at infinity, namely,
 $\lim_{s \rightarrow ∞}\frac{f(s)}{s^{p-1+α}} = 0$
. We will discuss nonexistence results for
 $λ≈ 0$
, and existence and uniqueness results for
 $λ \gg 1$
. We establish the existence result by a method of sub-supersolutions and the uniqueness result by establishing growth estimates for solutions.
Citation: Eun Kyoung Lee, R. Shivaji, Inbo Sim, Byungjae Son. Analysis of positive solutions for a class of semipositone p-Laplacian problems with nonlinear boundary conditions. Communications on Pure and Applied Analysis, 2019, 18 (3) : 1139-1154. doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2019055
##### References:
  H. Amann, Fixed point equations and nonlinear eigenvalue problems in ordered Banach spaces, SIAM Rev., 18 (1976), 620-709.  doi: 10.1137/1018114.   D. Butler, E. Ko, E. K. Lee and R. Shivaji, Positive radial solutions for elliptic equations on exterior domains with nonlinear boundary conditions, Commun. Pure Appl. Anal., 13 (2014), 2713-2731.  doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2014.13.2713.   R. S. Cantrell and C. Cosner, Density dependent behavior at habitat boundaries and the allee effect, Bull. Math. Biol., 69 (2007), 2339-2360.  doi: 10.1007/s11538-007-9222-0.   R. S. Cantrell and C. Cosner, Spatial ecology via reaction-diffusion equations, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 2004. doi: 10.1002/0470871296.   D. Daners, Robin boundary value problems on arbitrary domains, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 352 (2000), 4207-4236.  doi: 10.1090/S0002-9947-00-02444-2.   D. A. Frank-Kamenetskii, Diffusion and Heat Transfer in Chemical Kinetics, New York, Plenum Press, 1969. J. Goddard II, E. K. Lee and R. Shivaji, Population models with diffusion, strong allee effect, and nonlinear boundary conditions, Nonlinear Anal., 74 (2011), 6202-6208.  doi: 10.1016/j.na.2011.06.001.   D. D. Hai, Uniqueness of positive solutions for a class of quasilinear problems, Nonlinear Anal., 69 (2008), 2720-2732.  doi: 10.1016/j.na.2007.08.046.   E. Ko, M. Ramaswamy and R. Shivaji, Uniqueness of positive radial solutions for a class of semipositone problems on the exterior of a ball, J. Math. Anal. Appl., 423 (2015), 399-409.  doi: 10.1016/j.jmaa.2014.09.058.   E. K. Lee, R. Shivaji and B. Son, Positive radial solutions to classes of singular problems on the exterior domain of a ball, J. Math. Anal. Appl., 434 (2016), 1597-1611.  doi: 10.1016/j.jmaa.2015.09.072.   P. Drábek, Topological and Variational Methods for Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems, 1st edition, Addison Wesley Longman Limited, Harlow, 1997 M. D. Pino, M. Elgueta and R. Manásevich, A homotopic deformation along p of a Leray-Schauder degree result and existence for $(|u'|^{p- 2}u')'+ f(t, u) = 0, u (0) = u (T) = 0, p> 1$, J. Differential Equations, 80 (1989), 1-13.  doi: 10.1016/0022-0396(89)90093-4.   L. Sankar, Classes of Singular Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems with Semipositone Structure, Ph. D. thesis, Mississippi State University, 2013. N. N. Semenov, Chemical Kinetics and Chain Reactions, Oxford University Press, London, 1935. R. Shivaji, I. Sim and B. Son, A uniqueness result for a semipositone p-Laplacian problem on the exterior of a ball, J. Math. Anal. Appl., 445 (2017), 459-475.  doi: 10.1016/j.jmaa.2016.07.029.   Y. B. Zeldovich, G. I. Barenblatt, V. B. Librovich and G. M. Makhviladze, The Mathematical Theory of Combustion and Explosions, Consultants Bureau, New York, 1985. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4613-2349-5.   show all references

##### References:
  H. Amann, Fixed point equations and nonlinear eigenvalue problems in ordered Banach spaces, SIAM Rev., 18 (1976), 620-709.  doi: 10.1137/1018114.   D. Butler, E. Ko, E. K. Lee and R. Shivaji, Positive radial solutions for elliptic equations on exterior domains with nonlinear boundary conditions, Commun. Pure Appl. Anal., 13 (2014), 2713-2731.  doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2014.13.2713.   R. S. Cantrell and C. Cosner, Density dependent behavior at habitat boundaries and the allee effect, Bull. Math. Biol., 69 (2007), 2339-2360.  doi: 10.1007/s11538-007-9222-0.   R. S. Cantrell and C. Cosner, Spatial ecology via reaction-diffusion equations, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 2004. doi: 10.1002/0470871296.   D. Daners, Robin boundary value problems on arbitrary domains, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 352 (2000), 4207-4236.  doi: 10.1090/S0002-9947-00-02444-2.   D. A. Frank-Kamenetskii, Diffusion and Heat Transfer in Chemical Kinetics, New York, Plenum Press, 1969. J. Goddard II, E. K. Lee and R. Shivaji, Population models with diffusion, strong allee effect, and nonlinear boundary conditions, Nonlinear Anal., 74 (2011), 6202-6208.  doi: 10.1016/j.na.2011.06.001.   D. D. Hai, Uniqueness of positive solutions for a class of quasilinear problems, Nonlinear Anal., 69 (2008), 2720-2732.  doi: 10.1016/j.na.2007.08.046.   E. Ko, M. Ramaswamy and R. Shivaji, Uniqueness of positive radial solutions for a class of semipositone problems on the exterior of a ball, J. Math. Anal. Appl., 423 (2015), 399-409.  doi: 10.1016/j.jmaa.2014.09.058.   E. K. Lee, R. Shivaji and B. Son, Positive radial solutions to classes of singular problems on the exterior domain of a ball, J. Math. Anal. Appl., 434 (2016), 1597-1611.  doi: 10.1016/j.jmaa.2015.09.072.   P. Drábek, Topological and Variational Methods for Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems, 1st edition, Addison Wesley Longman Limited, Harlow, 1997 M. D. Pino, M. Elgueta and R. Manásevich, A homotopic deformation along p of a Leray-Schauder degree result and existence for $(|u'|^{p- 2}u')'+ f(t, u) = 0, u (0) = u (T) = 0, p> 1$, J. Differential Equations, 80 (1989), 1-13.  doi: 10.1016/0022-0396(89)90093-4.   L. Sankar, Classes of Singular Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems with Semipositone Structure, Ph. D. thesis, Mississippi State University, 2013. N. N. Semenov, Chemical Kinetics and Chain Reactions, Oxford University Press, London, 1935. R. Shivaji, I. Sim and B. Son, A uniqueness result for a semipositone p-Laplacian problem on the exterior of a ball, J. Math. Anal. Appl., 445 (2017), 459-475.  doi: 10.1016/j.jmaa.2016.07.029.   Y. B. Zeldovich, G. I. Barenblatt, V. B. Librovich and G. M. Makhviladze, The Mathematical Theory of Combustion and Explosions, Consultants Bureau, New York, 1985. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4613-2349-5.   Maya Chhetri, D. D. Hai, R. Shivaji. On positive solutions for classes of p-Laplacian semipositone systems. 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