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July  2020, 19(7): 3805-3827. doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2020168

Approximation of the trajectory attractor of the 3D smectic-A liquid crystal flow equations

1. 

College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China

2. 

Department of Mathematics, Institute for Nonlinear Sciences, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China

3. 

Université de Poitiers, Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Applications, UMR CNRS 7648, SP2MI, Boulevard Marie et Pierre Curie-Téléport 2, F–6962 Chasseneuil Futuroscope Cedex, France

*Corresponding author

Received  November 2019 Revised  February 2020 Published  April 2020

Fund Project: This paper was supported in part by the NNSF of China with contract numbers 11671075, 11801068, 11971110 and the Graduate Innovation Fund Project of Donghua University with contract number CUSF-DH-D-2020077

In this paper, we first establish the existence of trajectory attractors for the 3D smectic-A liquid crystal flow system and 3D smectic-A liquid crystal flow-$ \alpha $ model, and then prove that the latter trajectory attractor converges to the former one as the parameter $ \alpha\rightarrow 0^{+} $.

Citation: Xiuqing Wang, Yuming Qin, Alain Miranville. Approximation of the trajectory attractor of the 3D smectic-A liquid crystal flow equations. Communications on Pure and Applied Analysis, 2020, 19 (7) : 3805-3827. doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2020168
References:
[1]

V. V. Chepyzhov, E. S. Titi and M. I. Vishik, On Convergence of Trajectory Attractors of 3D Navier-Stokes-$\alpha$ Model as $\alpha$ Approaches 0, Russian Academy of Sciences, (DoM) and London Mathematical Society, 2007. doi: 10.1070/SM2007v198n12ABEH003902.

[2]

V. V. ChepyzhovE. S. Titi and M. I. Vishik, On the convergence of solutions of the Leray-$\alpha$ model to the trajectory attractor of the 3D Navier-Stokes system, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., 17 (2007), 33-52.  doi: 10.3934/dcds.2007.17.481.

[3]

V. V. Chepyzhov and M. I. Vishik, Trajectory attractors for evolution Equations, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris. Ser. I, 321 (1995), 1309-1314.  doi: 10.1016/S0021-7824(97)89978-3.

[4]

V. V. Chepyzhov and M.I. Vishik, Evolution Equations and their trajectory attractors, J. Math. Pures Appl., 76 (1997), 913-964.  doi: 10.1016/S0021-7824(97)89978-3.

[5]

V. V. Chepyzhov and M. I. Vishik, Trajectory and global attractors of three-dimensional Navier-Stokes systems, Math. Notes, 71 (2002), 177-193.  doi: 10.1023/A:1014190629738.

[6]

V. V. Chepyzhov and M. I. Vishik, Attractors for Equations of Mathematical Physics, Collouium Publications, Vol. 49, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 2002.

[7]

B. Climent-Ezquerra and F. Guill$\acute{e}$n-Gonz$\acute{a}$lez, Global in time solution and time-periodicity for a Smectic-A liquid crystal model, Commun. Pure Appl. Anal., 9 (2010), 1473-1493.  doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2010.9.1473.

[8]

G. Deugoue, Approximation of the trajectory attractor of the 3D MHD system, Commun. Pure Appl. Anal., 12 (2013), 2119-2144.  doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2013.12.2119.

[9]

L. C. Evans, Partial Differential Equations, Vol. 49, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 1997.

[10]

W. E, Nonlinear continuum theory of smectic-A liquid crystals, Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal., 137 (1997), 159-175.  doi: 10.1007/s002050050026.

[11]

S. Frigeri and E. Rocca, Trajectory attractors for the Sun-Liu model for nematic liquid crystals in 3D, Nonlinearity, 26 (2013), 933-958.  doi: 10.1088/0951-7715/26/4/933.

[12]

C. G. Gal and M. Grasselli, Trajectory Attractors for Binary Fluid Mixtures in 3D, Chin. Ann. Math., 31B (2010), 655-678.  doi: 10.1007/s11401-010-0603-6.

[13]

P. G. de Gennes, Viscous flows in smectic A liquid crystals, Phys. Fluids, 17 (1974), 1645.

[14]

M. GrasselliG. Schimperna and S. Zelik, Trajectory and smooth attractors for Cahn-Hilliard equations with inertial term, Nonlinearity, 23 (2010), 707-738.  doi: 10.1088/0951-7715/23/3/016.

[15]

A. B. Liu and C. C. Liu, Global attractor for a smectic-A liquid crystal model in 2D, Boll. Unione Mat. Ital., 11 (2018), 581-594.  doi: 10.1007/s40574-018-0156-2.

[16]

C. Liu, The dynamic for incompressible Smectic-A liquid crystals: existence and regularity, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., 6 (2000), 591-608.  doi: 10.3934/dcds.2000.6.591.

[17]

F. H. Lin and C. Liu, Non-parabolic dissipative systems modelling the flow of liquid crystals, Commun. Pure Appl. Math., 48 (1995), 501-537.  doi: 10.1002/cpa.3160480503.

[18]

Y. M. Qin, Analytic Inequalities and Their Applications in PDEs, Springer International Publishing, 2017. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-00831-8.

[19]

A. Segatti and H. Wu, Finite dimensional reduction and convergence to equilibrium for incompressible smectic-A liquid crystal flows, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 43 (2011), 2445-2481.  doi: 10.1137/100813427.

[20]

I. W. Stewart, Dynamic theory for smectic A liquid crystals, Continuum Mech. Thermodyn., 18 (2007), 343-360.  doi: 10.1007/s00161-006-0035-4.

[21]

R. Teman, Infinite-Dimensional Dynamical Systems in Mechanics and Physis, Springer, New York, 1997. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4612-0645-3.

[22]

X. Q. Wang and Y. M. Qin, Upper semicontinuity of trajectory attractors for 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equation, Appl. Math. Optim., (2019). doi: 10.1007/s00245-019-09625-7.

[23]

M. C. Zelati and C. G. Gal, Singular limits of Voight models in fluid dynamics, J. Math Fluid Mech., 17 (2005), 233-259. doi: 10.1007/s00021-015-0201-1.

show all references

References:
[1]

V. V. Chepyzhov, E. S. Titi and M. I. Vishik, On Convergence of Trajectory Attractors of 3D Navier-Stokes-$\alpha$ Model as $\alpha$ Approaches 0, Russian Academy of Sciences, (DoM) and London Mathematical Society, 2007. doi: 10.1070/SM2007v198n12ABEH003902.

[2]

V. V. ChepyzhovE. S. Titi and M. I. Vishik, On the convergence of solutions of the Leray-$\alpha$ model to the trajectory attractor of the 3D Navier-Stokes system, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., 17 (2007), 33-52.  doi: 10.3934/dcds.2007.17.481.

[3]

V. V. Chepyzhov and M. I. Vishik, Trajectory attractors for evolution Equations, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris. Ser. I, 321 (1995), 1309-1314.  doi: 10.1016/S0021-7824(97)89978-3.

[4]

V. V. Chepyzhov and M.I. Vishik, Evolution Equations and their trajectory attractors, J. Math. Pures Appl., 76 (1997), 913-964.  doi: 10.1016/S0021-7824(97)89978-3.

[5]

V. V. Chepyzhov and M. I. Vishik, Trajectory and global attractors of three-dimensional Navier-Stokes systems, Math. Notes, 71 (2002), 177-193.  doi: 10.1023/A:1014190629738.

[6]

V. V. Chepyzhov and M. I. Vishik, Attractors for Equations of Mathematical Physics, Collouium Publications, Vol. 49, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 2002.

[7]

B. Climent-Ezquerra and F. Guill$\acute{e}$n-Gonz$\acute{a}$lez, Global in time solution and time-periodicity for a Smectic-A liquid crystal model, Commun. Pure Appl. Anal., 9 (2010), 1473-1493.  doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2010.9.1473.

[8]

G. Deugoue, Approximation of the trajectory attractor of the 3D MHD system, Commun. Pure Appl. Anal., 12 (2013), 2119-2144.  doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2013.12.2119.

[9]

L. C. Evans, Partial Differential Equations, Vol. 49, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 1997.

[10]

W. E, Nonlinear continuum theory of smectic-A liquid crystals, Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal., 137 (1997), 159-175.  doi: 10.1007/s002050050026.

[11]

S. Frigeri and E. Rocca, Trajectory attractors for the Sun-Liu model for nematic liquid crystals in 3D, Nonlinearity, 26 (2013), 933-958.  doi: 10.1088/0951-7715/26/4/933.

[12]

C. G. Gal and M. Grasselli, Trajectory Attractors for Binary Fluid Mixtures in 3D, Chin. Ann. Math., 31B (2010), 655-678.  doi: 10.1007/s11401-010-0603-6.

[13]

P. G. de Gennes, Viscous flows in smectic A liquid crystals, Phys. Fluids, 17 (1974), 1645.

[14]

M. GrasselliG. Schimperna and S. Zelik, Trajectory and smooth attractors for Cahn-Hilliard equations with inertial term, Nonlinearity, 23 (2010), 707-738.  doi: 10.1088/0951-7715/23/3/016.

[15]

A. B. Liu and C. C. Liu, Global attractor for a smectic-A liquid crystal model in 2D, Boll. Unione Mat. Ital., 11 (2018), 581-594.  doi: 10.1007/s40574-018-0156-2.

[16]

C. Liu, The dynamic for incompressible Smectic-A liquid crystals: existence and regularity, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., 6 (2000), 591-608.  doi: 10.3934/dcds.2000.6.591.

[17]

F. H. Lin and C. Liu, Non-parabolic dissipative systems modelling the flow of liquid crystals, Commun. Pure Appl. Math., 48 (1995), 501-537.  doi: 10.1002/cpa.3160480503.

[18]

Y. M. Qin, Analytic Inequalities and Their Applications in PDEs, Springer International Publishing, 2017. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-00831-8.

[19]

A. Segatti and H. Wu, Finite dimensional reduction and convergence to equilibrium for incompressible smectic-A liquid crystal flows, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 43 (2011), 2445-2481.  doi: 10.1137/100813427.

[20]

I. W. Stewart, Dynamic theory for smectic A liquid crystals, Continuum Mech. Thermodyn., 18 (2007), 343-360.  doi: 10.1007/s00161-006-0035-4.

[21]

R. Teman, Infinite-Dimensional Dynamical Systems in Mechanics and Physis, Springer, New York, 1997. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4612-0645-3.

[22]

X. Q. Wang and Y. M. Qin, Upper semicontinuity of trajectory attractors for 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equation, Appl. Math. Optim., (2019). doi: 10.1007/s00245-019-09625-7.

[23]

M. C. Zelati and C. G. Gal, Singular limits of Voight models in fluid dynamics, J. Math Fluid Mech., 17 (2005), 233-259. doi: 10.1007/s00021-015-0201-1.

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