June  2006, 16(2): 463-504. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2006.16.463

The circle and the solenoid

1. 

DMP, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, 4000 Porto, Portugal

2. 

Einstein chair, Graduate Center, City University of New York and SUNY Stony Brook, New York 11794-3651, United States

Received  January 2005 Revised  January 2006 Published  July 2006

In the paper, we discuss two questions about degree $d$ smooth expanding circle maps, with $d \ge 2$. (i) We characterize the sequences of asymptotic length ratios which occur for systems with Hölder continuous derivative. The sequence of asymptotic length ratios are precisely those given by a positive Hölder continuous function $s$ (solenoid function) on the Cantor set $C$ of $d$-adic integers satisfying a functional equation called the matching condition. In the case of the $2$-adic integer Cantor set, the functional equation is

$ s (2x+1)= \frac{s (x)} {s (2x)}$ $1+\frac{1}{ s (2x-1)}-1. $

We also present a one-to-one correspondence between solenoid functions and affine classes of exponentially fast $d$-adic tilings of the real line that are fixed points of the $d$-amalgamation operator. (ii) We calculate the precise maximum possible level of smoothness for a representative of the system, up to diffeomorphic conjugacy, in terms of the functions $s$ and $cr(x)=(1+s(x))/(1+(s(x+1))^{-1})$. For example, in the Lipschitz structure on $C$ determined by $s$, the maximum smoothness is $C^{1+\alpha}$ for $0 < \alpha \le 1$ if and only if $s$ is $\alpha$-Hölder continuous. The maximum smoothness is $C^{2+\alpha}$ for $0 < \alpha \le 1$ if and only if $cr$ is $(1+\alpha)$-Hölder. A curious connection with Mostow type rigidity is provided by the fact that $s$ must be constant if it is $\alpha$-Hölder for $\alpha > 1$.

Citation: A. A. Pinto, D. Sullivan. The circle and the solenoid. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2006, 16 (2) : 463-504. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2006.16.463
[1]

Mark F. Demers. Uniqueness and exponential mixing for the measure of maximal entropy for piecewise hyperbolic maps. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2021, 41 (1) : 217-256. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2020217

[2]

Ilyasse Lamrani, Imad El Harraki, Ali Boutoulout, Fatima-Zahrae El Alaoui. Feedback stabilization of bilinear coupled hyperbolic systems. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - S, 2020  doi: 10.3934/dcdss.2020434

[3]

Peter Giesl, Zachary Langhorne, Carlos Argáez, Sigurdur Hafstein. Computing complete Lyapunov functions for discrete-time dynamical systems. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - B, 2021, 26 (1) : 299-336. doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2020331

[4]

Gervy Marie Angeles, Gilbert Peralta. Energy method for exponential stability of coupled one-dimensional hyperbolic PDE-ODE systems. Evolution Equations & Control Theory, 2020  doi: 10.3934/eect.2020108

[5]

Illés Horváth, Kristóf Attila Horváth, Péter Kovács, Miklós Telek. Mean-field analysis of a scaling MAC radio protocol. Journal of Industrial & Management Optimization, 2021, 17 (1) : 279-297. doi: 10.3934/jimo.2019111

[6]

Claudio Bonanno, Marco Lenci. Pomeau-Manneville maps are global-local mixing. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2021, 41 (3) : 1051-1069. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2020309

[7]

Gunther Uhlmann, Jian Zhai. Inverse problems for nonlinear hyperbolic equations. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2021, 41 (1) : 455-469. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2020380

[8]

Constantine M. Dafermos. A variational approach to the Riemann problem for hyperbolic conservation laws. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2009, 23 (1&2) : 185-195. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2009.23.185

[9]

Bimal Mandal, Aditi Kar Gangopadhyay. A note on generalization of bent boolean functions. Advances in Mathematics of Communications, 2021, 15 (2) : 329-346. doi: 10.3934/amc.2020069

[10]

Andreas Koutsogiannis. Multiple ergodic averages for tempered functions. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2021, 41 (3) : 1177-1205. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2020314

[11]

Huu-Quang Nguyen, Ya-Chi Chu, Ruey-Lin Sheu. On the convexity for the range set of two quadratic functions. Journal of Industrial & Management Optimization, 2020  doi: 10.3934/jimo.2020169

[12]

Xinpeng Wang, Bingo Wing-Kuen Ling, Wei-Chao Kuang, Zhijing Yang. Orthogonal intrinsic mode functions via optimization approach. Journal of Industrial & Management Optimization, 2021, 17 (1) : 51-66. doi: 10.3934/jimo.2019098

[13]

Lars Grüne. Computing Lyapunov functions using deep neural networks. Journal of Computational Dynamics, 2020  doi: 10.3934/jcd.2021006

[14]

Peter Giesl, Sigurdur Hafstein. System specific triangulations for the construction of CPA Lyapunov functions. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - B, 2020  doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2020378

[15]

Guoyuan Chen, Yong Liu, Juncheng Wei. Nondegeneracy of harmonic maps from $ {{\mathbb{R}}^{2}} $ to $ {{\mathbb{S}}^{2}} $. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2020, 40 (6) : 3215-3233. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2019228

[16]

Magdalena Foryś-Krawiec, Jiří Kupka, Piotr Oprocha, Xueting Tian. On entropy of $ \Phi $-irregular and $ \Phi $-level sets in maps with the shadowing property. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2021, 41 (3) : 1271-1296. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2020317

[17]

Nguyen Huu Can, Nguyen Huy Tuan, Donal O'Regan, Vo Van Au. On a final value problem for a class of nonlinear hyperbolic equations with damping term. Evolution Equations & Control Theory, 2021, 10 (1) : 103-127. doi: 10.3934/eect.2020053

[18]

Soonki Hong, Seonhee Lim. Martin boundary of brownian motion on gromov hyperbolic metric graphs. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2021  doi: 10.3934/dcds.2021014

[19]

Zhiting Ma. Navier-Stokes limit of globally hyperbolic moment equations. Kinetic & Related Models, 2021, 14 (1) : 175-197. doi: 10.3934/krm.2021001

[20]

Yu Zhou, Xinfeng Dong, Yongzhuang Wei, Fengrong Zhang. A note on the Signal-to-noise ratio of $ (n, m) $-functions. Advances in Mathematics of Communications, 2020  doi: 10.3934/amc.2020117

2019 Impact Factor: 1.338

Metrics

  • PDF downloads (62)
  • HTML views (0)
  • Cited by (6)

Other articles
by authors

[Back to Top]