December  2014, 34(12): 5135-5164. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2014.34.5135

Measuring the total amount of chaos in some Hamiltonian systems

1. 

Departament de Matemàtica Aplicada i Anàlisi, Universitat de Barcelona, Gran Via 585, 08007 Barcelona

Received  February 2014 Revised  April 2014 Published  June 2014

We consider some simple Hamiltonian systems, variants or generalizations of the Hénon-Heiles system, in two and three degrees of freedom, around a positive definite elliptic point, in resonant and non-resonant cases. After reviewing some theoretical background, we determine a measure of the domain of chaoticity by looking at the frequency of positive Lyapunov exponents in a sample of initial conditions. The question we study is how this measure depends on the energy and parameters and which are the dynamical objects responsible for the observed behaviour.
Citation: Carles Simó. Measuring the total amount of chaos in some Hamiltonian systems. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2014, 34 (12) : 5135-5164. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2014.34.5135
References:
[1]

V. I. Arnold and A. Avez, Problèmes Ergodiques de la Mécanique Classique,, Gauthier-Villars, (1967).   Google Scholar

[2]

H. Broer, R. Roussarie and C. Simó, Invariant circles in the Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation for diffeomorphism,, Ergod. Th. & Dynam. Systems, 16 (1996), 1147.  doi: 10.1017/S0143385700009950.  Google Scholar

[3]

H. Broer and C. Simó, Hill's equation with quasi-periodic forcing: Resonance tongues, instability pockets and global phenomena,, Bul. Soc. Bras. Mat., 29 (1998), 253.  doi: 10.1007/BF01237651.  Google Scholar

[4]

P. M. Cincotta, C. M. Giordano and C. Simó, Phase space structure of multidimensional systems by means of the Mean Exponential Growth factor of Nearby Orbits (MEGNO),, Physica D, 182 (2003), 151.  doi: 10.1016/S0167-2789(03)00103-9.  Google Scholar

[5]

A. Delshams, V. Gelfreich, À. Jorba and T. Martínez-Seara, Exponentially small splitting of separatrices under fast quasiperiodic forcing,, Comm. Math. Phys., 189 (1997), 35.  doi: 10.1007/s002200050190.  Google Scholar

[6]

A. Delshams, M. Gonchenko and P. Gutiérrez, Exponentially small lower bounds for the splitting of separatrices to whiskered tori with frequencies of constant type,, Preprint, (): 14.   Google Scholar

[7]

E. Fontich and C. Simó, Invariant manifolds for near identity differentiable maps and splitting of separatrices,, Ergod. Th. & Dynam. Systems, 10 (1990), 319.  doi: 10.1017/S0143385700005575.  Google Scholar

[8]

E. Fontich and C. Simó, The splitting of separatrices for analytic diffeomorphisms,, Ergod. Th. & Dynam. Systems, 10 (1990), 295.  doi: 10.1017/S0143385700005563.  Google Scholar

[9]

C. Froeschlé, Numerical study of a four-dimensional mapping,, Astronom. and Astrophys., 16 (1972), 172.   Google Scholar

[10]

V. Gelfreich and C. Simó, High-precision computations of divergent asymptotic series and homoclinic phenomena,, Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems B, 10 (2008), 511.  doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2008.10.511.  Google Scholar

[11]

V. Gelfreich, C. Simó and A. Vieiro, Dynamics of $4D$ symplectic maps near a double resonance,, Physica D, 243 (2013), 92.  doi: 10.1016/j.physd.2012.10.001.  Google Scholar

[12]

A. Giorgilli, A. Delshams, E. Fontich, L. Galgani and C. Simó, Effective stability for a Hamiltonian system near an elliptic equilibrium point, with an application to the restricted three body problem,, Journal of Differential Equations, 77 (1989), 167.  doi: 10.1016/0022-0396(89)90161-7.  Google Scholar

[13]

G. Gómez, J. M. Mondelo and C. Simó, A collocation method for the numerical fourier analysis of quasi-periodic functions. I: Numerical tests and examples,, Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems B, 14 (2010), 41.  doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2010.14.41.  Google Scholar

[14]

G. Gómez, J. M. Mondelo and C. Simó, A Collocation Method for the Numerical Fourier Analysis of Quasi-periodic Functions. II: Analytical error estimates,, Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems B, 14 (2010), 75.  doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2010.14.75.  Google Scholar

[15]

M. Hénon and C. Heiles, The applicability of the third integral of motion: Some numerical experiments,, Astronom. J., 69 (1964), 73.  doi: 10.1086/109234.  Google Scholar

[16]

H. Ito, Non-integrability of the Hénon-Heiles system and a theorem of Ziglin,, Koday Math. J., 8 (1985), 120.  doi: 10.2996/kmj/1138037004.  Google Scholar

[17]

J. Laskar, The chaotic motion of the solar system. A numerical estimate of the size of the chaotic zones,, Icarus, 88 (1990), 266.  doi: 10.1016/0019-1035(90)90084-M.  Google Scholar

[18]

F. Ledrappier, M. Shub, C. Simó and A. Wilkinson, Random versus deterministic exponents in a rich family of diffeomorphisms,, J. Statist. Phys., 113 (2003), 85.  doi: 10.1023/A:1025770720803.  Google Scholar

[19]

A. Luque and J. Villanueva, Quasi-Periodic Frequency Analysis Using Averaging-Extrapolation Methods,, SIAM J. Appl. Dyn. Syst., 13 (2014), 1.  doi: 10.1137/130920113.  Google Scholar

[20]

R. Martínez and C. Simó, Non-integrability of Hamiltonian systems through high order variational equations: Summary of results and examples,, Regular and Chaotic Dynamics, 14 (2009), 323.  doi: 10.1134/S1560354709030010.  Google Scholar

[21]

R. Martínez and C. Simó, Non-integrability of the degenerate cases of the Swinging Atwood's Machine using higher order variational equations,, Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems A, 29 (2011), 1.  doi: 10.3934/dcds.2011.29.1.  Google Scholar

[22]

N. Miguel, C. Simó and A. Vieiro, From the Hénon conservative map to the Chirikov standard map for large parameter values,, Regular and Chaotic Dynamics, 18 (2013), 469.  doi: 10.1134/S1560354713050018.  Google Scholar

[23]

J. J. Morales-Ruiz, Differential Galois Theory and Non-Integrability of Hamiltonian Systems,, Progress in Mathematics, 179 (1999).  doi: 10.1007/978-3-0348-8718-2.  Google Scholar

[24]

J. J. Morales-Ruiz and J. P. Ramis, Galoisian obstructions to integrability of Hamiltonian systems I,, Methods and Applications of Analysis, 8 (2001), 33.   Google Scholar

[25]

J. J. Morales-Ruiz and J. P. Ramis, Galoisian obstructions to integrability of Hamiltonian systems II,, Methods and Applications of Analysis, 8 (2001), 97.   Google Scholar

[26]

J. J. Morales, J. P. Ramis and C. Simó, Integrability of hamiltonian systems and differential galois groups of higher variational equations,, Annales Sci. de l'ENS 4$^e$ série, 40 (2007), 845.  doi: 10.1016/j.ansens.2007.09.002.  Google Scholar

[27]

J. J. Morales and C. Simó, Non integrability criteria for Hamiltonians in the case of Lamé normal variational equations,, J. Diff. Equations, 129 (1996), 111.  doi: 10.1006/jdeq.1996.0113.  Google Scholar

[28]

A. Morbidelli and A. Giorgilli, Superexponential stability of KAM tori,, J. Statist. Phys, 78 (1995), 1607.  doi: 10.1007/BF02180145.  Google Scholar

[29]

J. Moser, Stable and Random Motions in Dynamical Systems: With Special Emphasis on Celestial Mechanics,, Princeton University Press, (1973).   Google Scholar

[30]

A. I. Neishtadt, The separation of motions in systems with rapidly rotating phase,, Prikladnaja Matematika i Mekhanika, 48 (1984), 133.  doi: 10.1016/0021-8928(84)90078-9.  Google Scholar

[31]

N. N. Nekhorosev, An exponential estimate of the time of stability of nearly-integrable Hamiltonian systems,, Russian Mathematical Surveys, 32 (1977), 5.   Google Scholar

[32]

J. B. Pesin, Characteristic exponents and smooth ergodic theory,, Russian Math. Surveys, 32 (1977), 55.   Google Scholar

[33]

J. Sánchez, M. Net and C. Simó, Computation of invariant tori by Newton-Krylov methods in large-scale dissipative systems,, Physica D, 239 (2010), 123.  doi: 10.1016/j.physd.2009.10.012.  Google Scholar

[34]

C. Siegel and J. Moser, Lectures on Celestial Mechanics,, Springer, (1971).   Google Scholar

[35]

C. Simó, On the analytical and numerical approximation of invariant manifolds,, Modern methods in celestial mechanics, (1990), 285.   Google Scholar

[36]

C. Simó, Averaging under fast quasiperiodic forcing,, Integrable and chaotic behaviour in Hamiltonian Systems, 331 (1994), 13.   Google Scholar

[37]

C. Simó, Invariant Curves of Perturbations of Non Twist Integrable Area Preserving Maps,, Regular and Chaotic Dynamics, 3 (1998), 180.  doi: 10.1070/rd1998v003n03ABEH000088.  Google Scholar

[38]

C. Simó, Global Dynamics and Fast Indicators,, Global Analysis of Dynamical Systems, (2001), 373.   Google Scholar

[39]

C. Simó and T. Stuchi, Central Stable/Unstable Manifolds and the destruction of KAM tori in the planar Hill problem,, Physica D, 140 (2000), 1.  doi: 10.1016/S0167-2789(99)00211-0.  Google Scholar

[40]

C. Simó, P. Sousa-Silva and M. Terra, Practical Stability Domains near $L_{4,5}$ in the Restricted Three-Body Problem: Some preliminary facts,, Progress and Challenges in Dynamical Systems, 54 (2013), 367.   Google Scholar

[41]

C. Simó, P. Sousa-Silva and M. Terra, Evidences of Diffusion Related to the Centre Manifold of $L_3$ in the 3D RTBP,, Work in progress., ().   Google Scholar

[42]

C. Simó and D. Treschev, Stability islands in the vicinity of separatrices of near-integrable symplectic maps,, Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems B, 10 (2008), 681.  doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2008.10.681.  Google Scholar

[43]

C. Simó and A. Vieiro, Resonant zones, inner and outer splittings in generic and low order resonances of Area Preserving Maps,, Nonlinearity, 22 (2009), 1191.  doi: 10.1088/0951-7715/22/5/012.  Google Scholar

[44]

C. Simó and A. Vieiro, Dynamics in chaotic zones of area preserving maps: close to separatrix and global instability zones,, Physica D, 240 (2011), 732.  doi: 10.1016/j.physd.2010.12.005.  Google Scholar

[45]

D. Treschev, Multidimensional symplectic separatrix maps,, J. Nonlinear Sci., 12 (2002), 27.  doi: 10.1007/s00332-001-0460-2.  Google Scholar

[46]

S. L. Ziglin, Branching of solutions and non-existence of first integrals in Hamiltonian mechanics I,, Funct. Anal. Appl., 16 (1982), 181.   Google Scholar

show all references

References:
[1]

V. I. Arnold and A. Avez, Problèmes Ergodiques de la Mécanique Classique,, Gauthier-Villars, (1967).   Google Scholar

[2]

H. Broer, R. Roussarie and C. Simó, Invariant circles in the Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation for diffeomorphism,, Ergod. Th. & Dynam. Systems, 16 (1996), 1147.  doi: 10.1017/S0143385700009950.  Google Scholar

[3]

H. Broer and C. Simó, Hill's equation with quasi-periodic forcing: Resonance tongues, instability pockets and global phenomena,, Bul. Soc. Bras. Mat., 29 (1998), 253.  doi: 10.1007/BF01237651.  Google Scholar

[4]

P. M. Cincotta, C. M. Giordano and C. Simó, Phase space structure of multidimensional systems by means of the Mean Exponential Growth factor of Nearby Orbits (MEGNO),, Physica D, 182 (2003), 151.  doi: 10.1016/S0167-2789(03)00103-9.  Google Scholar

[5]

A. Delshams, V. Gelfreich, À. Jorba and T. Martínez-Seara, Exponentially small splitting of separatrices under fast quasiperiodic forcing,, Comm. Math. Phys., 189 (1997), 35.  doi: 10.1007/s002200050190.  Google Scholar

[6]

A. Delshams, M. Gonchenko and P. Gutiérrez, Exponentially small lower bounds for the splitting of separatrices to whiskered tori with frequencies of constant type,, Preprint, (): 14.   Google Scholar

[7]

E. Fontich and C. Simó, Invariant manifolds for near identity differentiable maps and splitting of separatrices,, Ergod. Th. & Dynam. Systems, 10 (1990), 319.  doi: 10.1017/S0143385700005575.  Google Scholar

[8]

E. Fontich and C. Simó, The splitting of separatrices for analytic diffeomorphisms,, Ergod. Th. & Dynam. Systems, 10 (1990), 295.  doi: 10.1017/S0143385700005563.  Google Scholar

[9]

C. Froeschlé, Numerical study of a four-dimensional mapping,, Astronom. and Astrophys., 16 (1972), 172.   Google Scholar

[10]

V. Gelfreich and C. Simó, High-precision computations of divergent asymptotic series and homoclinic phenomena,, Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems B, 10 (2008), 511.  doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2008.10.511.  Google Scholar

[11]

V. Gelfreich, C. Simó and A. Vieiro, Dynamics of $4D$ symplectic maps near a double resonance,, Physica D, 243 (2013), 92.  doi: 10.1016/j.physd.2012.10.001.  Google Scholar

[12]

A. Giorgilli, A. Delshams, E. Fontich, L. Galgani and C. Simó, Effective stability for a Hamiltonian system near an elliptic equilibrium point, with an application to the restricted three body problem,, Journal of Differential Equations, 77 (1989), 167.  doi: 10.1016/0022-0396(89)90161-7.  Google Scholar

[13]

G. Gómez, J. M. Mondelo and C. Simó, A collocation method for the numerical fourier analysis of quasi-periodic functions. I: Numerical tests and examples,, Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems B, 14 (2010), 41.  doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2010.14.41.  Google Scholar

[14]

G. Gómez, J. M. Mondelo and C. Simó, A Collocation Method for the Numerical Fourier Analysis of Quasi-periodic Functions. II: Analytical error estimates,, Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems B, 14 (2010), 75.  doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2010.14.75.  Google Scholar

[15]

M. Hénon and C. Heiles, The applicability of the third integral of motion: Some numerical experiments,, Astronom. J., 69 (1964), 73.  doi: 10.1086/109234.  Google Scholar

[16]

H. Ito, Non-integrability of the Hénon-Heiles system and a theorem of Ziglin,, Koday Math. J., 8 (1985), 120.  doi: 10.2996/kmj/1138037004.  Google Scholar

[17]

J. Laskar, The chaotic motion of the solar system. A numerical estimate of the size of the chaotic zones,, Icarus, 88 (1990), 266.  doi: 10.1016/0019-1035(90)90084-M.  Google Scholar

[18]

F. Ledrappier, M. Shub, C. Simó and A. Wilkinson, Random versus deterministic exponents in a rich family of diffeomorphisms,, J. Statist. Phys., 113 (2003), 85.  doi: 10.1023/A:1025770720803.  Google Scholar

[19]

A. Luque and J. Villanueva, Quasi-Periodic Frequency Analysis Using Averaging-Extrapolation Methods,, SIAM J. Appl. Dyn. Syst., 13 (2014), 1.  doi: 10.1137/130920113.  Google Scholar

[20]

R. Martínez and C. Simó, Non-integrability of Hamiltonian systems through high order variational equations: Summary of results and examples,, Regular and Chaotic Dynamics, 14 (2009), 323.  doi: 10.1134/S1560354709030010.  Google Scholar

[21]

R. Martínez and C. Simó, Non-integrability of the degenerate cases of the Swinging Atwood's Machine using higher order variational equations,, Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems A, 29 (2011), 1.  doi: 10.3934/dcds.2011.29.1.  Google Scholar

[22]

N. Miguel, C. Simó and A. Vieiro, From the Hénon conservative map to the Chirikov standard map for large parameter values,, Regular and Chaotic Dynamics, 18 (2013), 469.  doi: 10.1134/S1560354713050018.  Google Scholar

[23]

J. J. Morales-Ruiz, Differential Galois Theory and Non-Integrability of Hamiltonian Systems,, Progress in Mathematics, 179 (1999).  doi: 10.1007/978-3-0348-8718-2.  Google Scholar

[24]

J. J. Morales-Ruiz and J. P. Ramis, Galoisian obstructions to integrability of Hamiltonian systems I,, Methods and Applications of Analysis, 8 (2001), 33.   Google Scholar

[25]

J. J. Morales-Ruiz and J. P. Ramis, Galoisian obstructions to integrability of Hamiltonian systems II,, Methods and Applications of Analysis, 8 (2001), 97.   Google Scholar

[26]

J. J. Morales, J. P. Ramis and C. Simó, Integrability of hamiltonian systems and differential galois groups of higher variational equations,, Annales Sci. de l'ENS 4$^e$ série, 40 (2007), 845.  doi: 10.1016/j.ansens.2007.09.002.  Google Scholar

[27]

J. J. Morales and C. Simó, Non integrability criteria for Hamiltonians in the case of Lamé normal variational equations,, J. Diff. Equations, 129 (1996), 111.  doi: 10.1006/jdeq.1996.0113.  Google Scholar

[28]

A. Morbidelli and A. Giorgilli, Superexponential stability of KAM tori,, J. Statist. Phys, 78 (1995), 1607.  doi: 10.1007/BF02180145.  Google Scholar

[29]

J. Moser, Stable and Random Motions in Dynamical Systems: With Special Emphasis on Celestial Mechanics,, Princeton University Press, (1973).   Google Scholar

[30]

A. I. Neishtadt, The separation of motions in systems with rapidly rotating phase,, Prikladnaja Matematika i Mekhanika, 48 (1984), 133.  doi: 10.1016/0021-8928(84)90078-9.  Google Scholar

[31]

N. N. Nekhorosev, An exponential estimate of the time of stability of nearly-integrable Hamiltonian systems,, Russian Mathematical Surveys, 32 (1977), 5.   Google Scholar

[32]

J. B. Pesin, Characteristic exponents and smooth ergodic theory,, Russian Math. Surveys, 32 (1977), 55.   Google Scholar

[33]

J. Sánchez, M. Net and C. Simó, Computation of invariant tori by Newton-Krylov methods in large-scale dissipative systems,, Physica D, 239 (2010), 123.  doi: 10.1016/j.physd.2009.10.012.  Google Scholar

[34]

C. Siegel and J. Moser, Lectures on Celestial Mechanics,, Springer, (1971).   Google Scholar

[35]

C. Simó, On the analytical and numerical approximation of invariant manifolds,, Modern methods in celestial mechanics, (1990), 285.   Google Scholar

[36]

C. Simó, Averaging under fast quasiperiodic forcing,, Integrable and chaotic behaviour in Hamiltonian Systems, 331 (1994), 13.   Google Scholar

[37]

C. Simó, Invariant Curves of Perturbations of Non Twist Integrable Area Preserving Maps,, Regular and Chaotic Dynamics, 3 (1998), 180.  doi: 10.1070/rd1998v003n03ABEH000088.  Google Scholar

[38]

C. Simó, Global Dynamics and Fast Indicators,, Global Analysis of Dynamical Systems, (2001), 373.   Google Scholar

[39]

C. Simó and T. Stuchi, Central Stable/Unstable Manifolds and the destruction of KAM tori in the planar Hill problem,, Physica D, 140 (2000), 1.  doi: 10.1016/S0167-2789(99)00211-0.  Google Scholar

[40]

C. Simó, P. Sousa-Silva and M. Terra, Practical Stability Domains near $L_{4,5}$ in the Restricted Three-Body Problem: Some preliminary facts,, Progress and Challenges in Dynamical Systems, 54 (2013), 367.   Google Scholar

[41]

C. Simó, P. Sousa-Silva and M. Terra, Evidences of Diffusion Related to the Centre Manifold of $L_3$ in the 3D RTBP,, Work in progress., ().   Google Scholar

[42]

C. Simó and D. Treschev, Stability islands in the vicinity of separatrices of near-integrable symplectic maps,, Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems B, 10 (2008), 681.  doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2008.10.681.  Google Scholar

[43]

C. Simó and A. Vieiro, Resonant zones, inner and outer splittings in generic and low order resonances of Area Preserving Maps,, Nonlinearity, 22 (2009), 1191.  doi: 10.1088/0951-7715/22/5/012.  Google Scholar

[44]

C. Simó and A. Vieiro, Dynamics in chaotic zones of area preserving maps: close to separatrix and global instability zones,, Physica D, 240 (2011), 732.  doi: 10.1016/j.physd.2010.12.005.  Google Scholar

[45]

D. Treschev, Multidimensional symplectic separatrix maps,, J. Nonlinear Sci., 12 (2002), 27.  doi: 10.1007/s00332-001-0460-2.  Google Scholar

[46]

S. L. Ziglin, Branching of solutions and non-existence of first integrals in Hamiltonian mechanics I,, Funct. Anal. Appl., 16 (1982), 181.   Google Scholar

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