June  2019, 39(6): 3479-3520. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2019144

On the probabilistic well-posedness of the nonlinear Schrödinger equations with non-algebraic nonlinearities

1. 

School of Mathematics, The University of Edinburgh and The Maxwell Institute for the Mathematical Sciences, James Clerk Maxwell Building, The King's Buildings, Peter Guthrie Tait Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3FD, United Kingdom

2. 

Division of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu University, 4-17-1 Wakasato, Nagano City 380-8553, Japan

3. 

Department of Mathematics, Heriot-Watt University and The Maxwell Institute for the Mathematical Sciences, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, United Kingdom

* Corresponding author: Tadahiro Oh

Received  September 2018 Published  February 2019

Fund Project: The first author was supported by the European Research Council (grant no. 637995 "ProbDynDispEq"). The second author was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant number JP16K17624.

We consider the Cauchy problem for the nonlinear Schrödinger equations (NLS) with non-algebraic nonlinearities on the Euclidean space. In particular, we study the energy-critical NLS on $ \mathbb{R}^d $, $ d = 5,6 $, and energy-critical NLS without gauge invariance and prove that they are almost surely locally well-posed with respect to randomized initial data below the energy space. We also study the long time behavior of solutions to these equations: (ⅰ) we prove almost sure global well-posedness of the (standard) energy-critical NLS on $ \mathbb{R}^d $, $ d = 5, 6 $, in the defocusing case, and (ⅱ) we present a probabilistic construction of finite time blowup solutions to the energy-critical NLS without gauge invariance below the energy space.

Citation: Tadahiro Oh, Mamoru Okamoto, Oana Pocovnicu. On the probabilistic well-posedness of the nonlinear Schrödinger equations with non-algebraic nonlinearities. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2019, 39 (6) : 3479-3520. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2019144
References:
[1]

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[2]

Á. Bényi, T. Oh and O. Pocovnicu, Wiener randomization on unbounded domains and an application to almost sure well-posedness of NLS, Excursions in Harmonic Analysis, Vol. 4, 3–25, Appl. Numer. Harmon. Anal., Birkhäuser/Springer, Cham, 2015.  Google Scholar

[3]

Á. BényiT. Oh and O. Pocovnicu, On the probabilistic Cauchy theory of the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation on $ \mathbb{R} ^d$, $d \ge 3$, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. Ser. B, 2 (2015), 1-50.  doi: 10.1090/btran/6.  Google Scholar

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Á. Bényi, T. Oh and O. Pocovnicu, On the probabilistic Cauchy theory for nonlinear dispersive PDEs, Landscapes of Time-Frequency Analysis, 1–32, Appl. Numer. Harmon. Anal., Birkhäuser/Springer, Cham, 2019. Google Scholar

[5]

Á. Bényi, T. Oh and O. Pocovnicu, Higher order expansions for the probabilistic local Cauchy theory of the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation on $ \mathbb{R}^3$, to appear in Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. Google Scholar

[6]

J. Bourgain, Fourier transform restriction phenomena for certain lattice subsets and applications to nonlinear evolution equations. Ⅰ. Schrödinger equations, Geom. Funct. Anal., 3 (1993), 107-156.  doi: 10.1007/BF01896020.  Google Scholar

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J. Bourgain, Invariant measures for the 2$D$-defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation, Comm. Math. Phys., 176 (1996), 421-445.  doi: 10.1007/BF02099556.  Google Scholar

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J. Bourgain, Refinements of Strichartz' inequality and applications to 2$D$-NLS with critical nonlinearity, Internat. Math. Res. Notices, 1998, 253–283. doi: 10.1155/S1073792898000191.  Google Scholar

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J. Brereton, Almost sure local well-posedness for the supercritical quintic NLS, Tunisian J. Math., 1 (2019), 427-453.  doi: 10.2140/tunis.2019.1.427.  Google Scholar

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S. HerrD. Tataru and N. Tzvetkov, Global well-posedness of the energy-critical nonlinear Schrödinger equation with small initial data in $H^1 (\mathbb{T}^3)$, Duke Math. J., 159 (2011), 329-349.  doi: 10.1215/00127094-1415889.  Google Scholar

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H. Hirayama and M. Okamoto, Random data Cauchy problem for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with derivative nonlinearity, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., 36 (2016), 6943-6974.  doi: 10.3934/dcds.2016102.  Google Scholar

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M. Ikeda and T. Inui, Some non-existence results for the semilinear Schrödinger equation without gauge invariance, J. Math. Anal. Appl., 425 (2015), 758-773.  doi: 10.1016/j.jmaa.2015.01.003.  Google Scholar

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M. Ikeda and T. Inui, Small data blow-up of $L^2$ or $H^1$-solution for the semilinear Schrödinger equation without gauge invariance, J. Evol. Equ., 15 (2015), 571-581.  doi: 10.1007/s00028-015-0273-7.  Google Scholar

[30]

M. Ikeda and Y. Wakasugi, Small-data blow-up of $L^2$-solution for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation without gauge invariance, Differential Integral Equations, 26 (2013), 1275-1285.   Google Scholar

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A. Ionescu and B. Pausader, Global well-posedness of the energy-critical defocusing NLS on $ \mathbb{R}\times \mathbb{T}^3$, Comm. Math. Phys., 312 (2012), 781-831.  doi: 10.1007/s00220-012-1474-3.  Google Scholar

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show all references

References:
[1]

A. Ayache and N. Tzvetkov, $L^p$ properties for Gaussian random series, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 360 (2008), 4425-4439.  doi: 10.1090/S0002-9947-08-04456-5.  Google Scholar

[2]

Á. Bényi, T. Oh and O. Pocovnicu, Wiener randomization on unbounded domains and an application to almost sure well-posedness of NLS, Excursions in Harmonic Analysis, Vol. 4, 3–25, Appl. Numer. Harmon. Anal., Birkhäuser/Springer, Cham, 2015.  Google Scholar

[3]

Á. BényiT. Oh and O. Pocovnicu, On the probabilistic Cauchy theory of the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation on $ \mathbb{R} ^d$, $d \ge 3$, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. Ser. B, 2 (2015), 1-50.  doi: 10.1090/btran/6.  Google Scholar

[4]

Á. Bényi, T. Oh and O. Pocovnicu, On the probabilistic Cauchy theory for nonlinear dispersive PDEs, Landscapes of Time-Frequency Analysis, 1–32, Appl. Numer. Harmon. Anal., Birkhäuser/Springer, Cham, 2019. Google Scholar

[5]

Á. Bényi, T. Oh and O. Pocovnicu, Higher order expansions for the probabilistic local Cauchy theory of the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation on $ \mathbb{R}^3$, to appear in Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. Google Scholar

[6]

J. Bourgain, Fourier transform restriction phenomena for certain lattice subsets and applications to nonlinear evolution equations. Ⅰ. Schrödinger equations, Geom. Funct. Anal., 3 (1993), 107-156.  doi: 10.1007/BF01896020.  Google Scholar

[7]

J. Bourgain, Invariant measures for the 2$D$-defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation, Comm. Math. Phys., 176 (1996), 421-445.  doi: 10.1007/BF02099556.  Google Scholar

[8]

J. Bourgain, Refinements of Strichartz' inequality and applications to 2$D$-NLS with critical nonlinearity, Internat. Math. Res. Notices, 1998, 253–283. doi: 10.1155/S1073792898000191.  Google Scholar

[9]

J. Brereton, Almost sure local well-posedness for the supercritical quintic NLS, Tunisian J. Math., 1 (2019), 427-453.  doi: 10.2140/tunis.2019.1.427.  Google Scholar

[10]

N. Burq and N. Tzvetkov, Random data Cauchy theory for supercritical wave equations I: Local theory, Invent. Math., 173 (2008), 449-475.  doi: 10.1007/s00222-008-0124-z.  Google Scholar

[11]

N. Burq and N. Tzvetkov, Probabilistic well-posedness for the cubic wave equation, J. Eur. Math. Soc. (JEMS), 16 (2014), 1-30.  doi: 10.4171/JEMS/426.  Google Scholar

[12]

T. Cazenave, Semilinear Schrödinger Equations, Courant Lecture Notes in Mathematics, 10. New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York; American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 2003. xiv+323 pp. doi: 10.1090/cln/010.  Google Scholar

[13]

T. Cazenave and F. Weissler, Some remarks on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the critical case, Nonlinear Semigroups, Partial Differential Equations and Attractors (Washington, DC, 1987), 18–29, Lecture Notes in Math., 1394, Springer, Berlin, 1989. doi: 10.1007/BFb0086749.  Google Scholar

[14]

M. Christ, Power series solution of a nonlinear Schrödinger equation, Mathematical Aspects of Nonlinear Dispersive Equations, 131–155, Ann. of Math. Stud., 163, Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJ, 2007.  Google Scholar

[15]

M. Christ, J. Colliander and T. Tao, Ill-posedness for nonlinear Schrödinger and wave equations, arXiv: 0311048, [math.AP]. Google Scholar

[16]

J. Colliander, M. Keel, G. Staffilani, H. Takaoka and T. Tao, Global well-posedness and scattering for the energy-critical nonlinear Schrödinger equation in $\mathbb{R}^{3}$, Ann. of Math., (2) 167 (2008), 767–865. doi: 10.4007/annals.2008.167.767.  Google Scholar

[17]

J. Colliander and T. Oh, Almost sure well-posedness of the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation below $L^2(\mathbb{T})$, Duke Math. J., 161 (2012), 367-414.  doi: 10.1215/00127094-1507400.  Google Scholar

[18]

G. Da Prato and A. Debussche, Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations driven by a space-time white noise, J. Funct. Anal., 196 (2002), 180-210.  doi: 10.1006/jfan.2002.3919.  Google Scholar

[19]

G. Da Prato and A. Debussche, Strong solutions to the stochastic quantization equations, Ann. Probab., 31 (2003), 1900-1916.  doi: 10.1214/aop/1068646370.  Google Scholar

[20]

C. Deng and S. Cui, Random-data Cauchy problem for the Navier-Stokes equations on $\mathbb{T} ^3$, J. Differential Equations, 251 (2011), 902-917.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2011.05.002.  Google Scholar

[21]

P. Friz and M. Hairer, A Course on Rough Paths. With an Introduction to Regularity Structures, Universitext. Springer, Cham, 2014. xiv+251 pp. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-08332-2.  Google Scholar

[22]

J. Ginibre and G. Velo, Smoothing properties and retarded estimates for some dispersive evolution equations, Comm. Math. Phys., 144 (1992), 163-188.  doi: 10.1007/BF02099195.  Google Scholar

[23]

M. Gubinelli and N. Perkowski, Lectures on Singular Stochastic PDEs, Ensaios Matemáticos [Mathematical Surveys], 29. Sociedade Brasileira de Matemática, Rio de Janeiro, 2015. 89 pp.  Google Scholar

[24]

M. Hadac, S. Herr and H. Koch, Well-posedness and scattering for the KP-Ⅱ equation in a critical space, Ann. Inst. H. Poincaré Anal. Non Linéaire, 26 (2009), 917–941; Erratum to Well-posedness and Scattering for the KP-Ⅱ Equation in a Critical Space, Ann. Inst. H. Poincaré Anal. Non Linéaire 27 (2010), 971–972. doi: 10.1016/j.anihpc.2010.01.006.  Google Scholar

[25]

M. Hairer, Introduction to regularity structures, Braz. J. Probab. Stat., 29 (2015), 175-210.  doi: 10.1214/14-BJPS241.  Google Scholar

[26]

S. HerrD. Tataru and N. Tzvetkov, Global well-posedness of the energy-critical nonlinear Schrödinger equation with small initial data in $H^1 (\mathbb{T}^3)$, Duke Math. J., 159 (2011), 329-349.  doi: 10.1215/00127094-1415889.  Google Scholar

[27]

H. Hirayama and M. Okamoto, Random data Cauchy problem for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with derivative nonlinearity, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., 36 (2016), 6943-6974.  doi: 10.3934/dcds.2016102.  Google Scholar

[28]

M. Ikeda and T. Inui, Some non-existence results for the semilinear Schrödinger equation without gauge invariance, J. Math. Anal. Appl., 425 (2015), 758-773.  doi: 10.1016/j.jmaa.2015.01.003.  Google Scholar

[29]

M. Ikeda and T. Inui, Small data blow-up of $L^2$ or $H^1$-solution for the semilinear Schrödinger equation without gauge invariance, J. Evol. Equ., 15 (2015), 571-581.  doi: 10.1007/s00028-015-0273-7.  Google Scholar

[30]

M. Ikeda and Y. Wakasugi, Small-data blow-up of $L^2$-solution for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation without gauge invariance, Differential Integral Equations, 26 (2013), 1275-1285.   Google Scholar

[31]

A. Ionescu and B. Pausader, Global well-posedness of the energy-critical defocusing NLS on $ \mathbb{R}\times \mathbb{T}^3$, Comm. Math. Phys., 312 (2012), 781-831.  doi: 10.1007/s00220-012-1474-3.  Google Scholar

[32]

J. P. Kahane, Some Random Series of Functions, Second edition. Cambridge Studies in Advanced Mathematics, 5. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1985. xiv+305 pp.  Google Scholar

[33]

M. Keel and T. Tao, Endpoint Strichartz estimates, Amer. J. Math., 120 (1998), 955-980.  doi: 10.1353/ajm.1998.0039.  Google Scholar

[34]

R. Killip and M. Vişan, The focusing energy-critical nonlinear Schrödinger equation in dimensions five and higher, Amer. J. Math., 132 (2010), 361-424.  doi: 10.1353/ajm.0.0107.  Google Scholar

[35]

R. KillipT. OhO. Pocovnicu and M. Vişan, Global well-posedness of the Gross-Pitaevskii and cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equations with non-vanishing boundary conditions, Math. Res. Lett., 19 (2012), 969-986.  doi: 10.4310/MRL.2012.v19.n5.a1.  Google Scholar

[36]

R. Killip, J. Murphy and M. Visan, Almost sure scattering for the energy-critical NLS with radial data below $H^1(\mathbb{R}^4)$, to appear in Comm. Partial Differential Equations. Google Scholar

[37]

H. Koch and D. Tataru, A priori bounds for the 1D cubic NLS in negative Sobolev spaces, Int. Math. Res. Not., 2007 (2007), Art. ID rnm053, 36 pp. doi: 10.1093/imrn/rnm053.  Google Scholar

[38]

J. Lührmann and D. Mendelson, Random data Cauchy theory for nonlinear wave equations of power-type on $ \mathbb{R} ^3$, Comm. Partial Differential Equations, 39 (2014), 2262-2283.  doi: 10.1080/03605302.2014.933239.  Google Scholar

[39]

J. Lührmann and D. Mendelson, On the almost sure global well-posedness of energy sub-critical nonlinear wave equations on $ \mathbb{R}^3$, New York J. Math., 22 (2016), 209-227.   Google Scholar

[40]

H. P. McKean, Statistical mechanics of nonlinear wave equations. Ⅳ. Cubic Schrödinger, Comm. Math. Phys., 168 (1995), 479–491. Erratum: "Statistical mechanics of nonlinear wave equations. IV. Cubic Schrödinger", Comm. Math. Phys., 173 (1995), 675. doi: 10.1007/BF02101840.  Google Scholar

[41]

T. Oh, A blowup result for the periodic NLS without gauge invariance, C. R. Math. Acad. Sci. Paris, 350 (2012), 389-392.  doi: 10.1016/j.crma.2012.04.009.  Google Scholar

[42]

T. Oh, On nonlinear Schrödinger equations with almost periodic initial data, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 47 (2015), 1253-1270.  doi: 10.1137/140973384.  Google Scholar

[43]

T. Oh, A remark on norm inflation with general initial data for the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equations in negative Sobolev spaces, Funkcial. Ekvac., 60 (2017), 259-277.  doi: 10.1619/fesi.60.259.  Google Scholar

[44]

T. Oh and O. Pocovnicu, Probabilistic global well-posedness of the energy-critical defocusing quintic nonlinear wave equation on $ \mathbb{R}^3$, J. Math. Pures Appl., 105 (2016), 342-366.  doi: 10.1016/j.matpur.2015.11.003.  Google Scholar

[45]

T. Oh and J. Quastel, On Cameron-Martin theorem and almost sure global existence, Proc. Edinb. Math. Soc., 59 (2016), 483-501.  doi: 10.1017/S0013091515000218.  Google Scholar

[46]

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