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doi: 10.3934/dcds.2020361

## Liouville type theorems for fractional and higher-order fractional systems

 1 School of Mathematics and Information Science, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510405, China 2 Institute of Applied Mathematics, AMSS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China 3 Institute of Applied Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China 4 University of Chinese Academy of sciences, Beijing 100049, China

Received  May 2020 Revised  August 2020 Published  October 2020

Fund Project: D. Cao was supported by NNSF of China (No.11831009) and Chinese Academy of Sciences (No.QYZDJ-SSW-SYS021)

In this paper, we first establish decay estimates for the fractional and higher-order fractional Hénon-Lane-Emden systems by using a nonlocal average and integral estimates, which deduce a result of non-existence. Next, we apply the method of scaling spheres introduced in [16] to derive a Liouville type theorem. We also construct an interesting example on super $\frac{\alpha}{2}$-harmonic functions (Proposition 1.2).

Citation: Daomin Cao, Guolin Qin. Liouville type theorems for fractional and higher-order fractional systems. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, doi: 10.3934/dcds.2020361
##### References:
 [1] A. Biswas, Liouville type results for systems of equations involving fractional Laplacian in exterior domains, Nonlinearity, 32 (2019), 2246-2268.  doi: 10.1088/1361-6544/ab091b.  Google Scholar [2] L. Caffarelli and L. Silvestre, An extension problem related to the fractional Laplacian, Comm. PDE., 32 (2007), 1245-1260.  doi: 10.1080/03605300600987306.  Google Scholar [3] D. Cao and W. Dai, Classification of nonnegative solutions to a bi-harmonic equation with Hartree type nonlinearity, Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh Sect. A, 149 (2019), 979-994.  doi: 10.1017/prm.2018.67.  Google Scholar [4] D. Cao, W. Dai and G. Qin, Super poly-harmonic properties, Liouville theorems and classification of nonnegative solutions to equations involving higher-order fractional Laplacians, preprint, arXiv: 1905.04300. Google Scholar [5] W. Chen, W. Dai and G. Qin, Liouville type theorems, a priori estimates and existence of solutions for critical order Hardy-Hénon equations in $\mathbb{R}^n$, preprint, arXiv: 1808.06609. Google Scholar [6] W. Chen, Y. Fang and R. Yang, Liouville theorems involving the fractional Laplacian on a half space, Adv. Math., 274 (2015), 167-198.  doi: 10.1016/j.aim.2014.12.013.  Google Scholar [7] W. Chen and C. Li, Classification of solutions of some nonlinear elliptic equations, Duke Math. J., 63 (1991), 615-622.  doi: 10.1215/S0012-7094-91-06325-8.  Google Scholar [8] W. Chen and C. Li, Super polyharmonic property of solutions for PDE systems and its applications, Comm. Pure Appl. Anal., 12 (2013), 2497-2514.  doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2013.12.2497.  Google Scholar [9] W. Chen, Y. Li and P. Ma, The Fractional Laplacian, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., 2020,344 pp, https://doi.org/10.1142/10550. Google Scholar [10] W. Chen, C. Li and Y. Li, A direct method of moving planes for the fractional Laplacian, Adv. Math., 308 (2017), 404-437.  doi: 10.1016/j.aim.2016.11.038.  Google Scholar [11] W. Dai, Y. Fang, J. Huang, Y. Qin and B. Wang, Regularity and classification of solutions to static Hartree equations involving fractional Laplacians, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. - A, 39 (2019), 1389-1403.  doi: 10.3934/dcds.2018117.  Google Scholar [12] W. Dai and Z. Liu, Classification of positive solutions to a system of Hardy-Sobolev type equations, Acta Mathematica Scientia, 37 (2017), 1415-1436.  doi: 10.1016/S0252-9602(17)30082-6.  Google Scholar [13] W. Dai and Z. Liu, Classification of nonnegative solutions to static Schrödinger-Hartree and Schrödinger-Maxwell equations with combined nonlinearities, Calc. Var. Partial Differential Equations, 58 (2019), Paper No. 156, 24 pp. doi: 10.1007/s00526-019-1595-z.  Google Scholar [14] W. Dai, Z. Liu and G. Qin, Classification of nonnegative solutions to static Schrödinger-Hartree-Maxwell type equations, preprint, arXiv: 1909.00492. Google Scholar [15] W. Dai and G. Qin, Classification of nonnegative classical solutions to third-order equations, Adv. Math., 328 (2018), 822-857.  doi: 10.1016/j.aim.2018.02.016.  Google Scholar [16] W. Dai and G. Qin, Liouville type theorems for fractional and higher order Hénon-Hardy type equations via the method of scaling spheres, preprint, arXiv: 1810.02752. Google Scholar [17] W. Dai and G. Qin, Liouville type theorem for critical order Hénon-Lane-Emden type equations on a half space and its applications, preprint, arXiv: 1811.00881. Google Scholar [18] W. Dai and G. Qin, Liouville type theorems for elliptic equations with Dirichlet conditions in exterior domains, Journal of Differential Equations, 269 (2020), 7231-7252.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2020.05.026.  Google Scholar [19] W. Dai and G. Qin, Liouville type theorems for Hardy-Henon equations with concave nonlinearities, Math. Nachr., 293 (2020), 1084-1093.  doi: 10.1002/mana.201800532.  Google Scholar [20] W. Dai, G. Qin and Y. Zhang, Liouville type theorem for higher order Hénon equations on a half space, Nonlinear Analysis, 183 (2019), 284-302.  doi: 10.1016/j.na.2019.01.033.  Google Scholar [21] M. Fazly and J. Wei, On stable solutions of the fractional Hénon-Lane-Emden equation, Commun. Contemp. Math., 18 (2016), 1650005, 24 pp. doi: 10.1142/S021919971650005X.  Google Scholar [22] M. Fazly and J. Wei, On finite Morse index solutions of higher order fractional Lane-Emden equations, Amer. J. Math., 139 (2017), 433-460.  doi: 10.1353/ajm.2017.0011.  Google Scholar [23] T. Kulczycki, Properties of Green function of symmetric stable processes, Probability and Mathematical Statistics, 17 (1997), 339-364.   Google Scholar [24] K. Li and Z. Zhang, Proof of the Hénon-Lane-Emden conjecture in $\mathbb{R}^{3}$, Journal of Differential Equations, 266 (2017), 202-226.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2018.07.036.  Google Scholar [25] E. Mitidieri, Nonexistence of positive solutions of semilinear elliptic systems in $\mathbb{R}^{N}$, Differential Integral Equations, 9 (1996), 465-479.   Google Scholar [26] S. Peng, Liouville theorems for fractional and higher order Hénon-Hardy systems on $\mathbb{R}^n$, Complex Var. Elliptic Equ., (2020), 25 pp. doi: 10.1080/17476933.2020.1783661.  Google Scholar [27] P. Poláčik, P. Quittner and P. Souplet, Singularity and decay estimates in superlinear problems via Liouville-type theorems. I. Elliptic systems, Duke Math. J., 139 (2007), 555-579.  doi: 10.1215/S0012-7094-07-13935-8.  Google Scholar [28] A. Quaas and A. Xia, A Liouville type theorem for Lane-Emden systems involving the fractional Laplacian, Nonlinerity, 29 (2016), 2279-2297.  doi: 10.1088/0951-7715/29/8/2279.  Google Scholar [29] J. Serrin and H. Zou, Non-existence of positive solutions of Lane-Emden systems, Differential Integral Equations, 9 (1996), 635-653.   Google Scholar [30] L. Silvestre, Regularity of the obstacle problem for a fractional power of the Laplace operator, Comm. Pure Appl. Math., 60 (2007), 67-112.  doi: 10.1002/cpa.20153.  Google Scholar [31] P. Souplet, The proof of the Lane-Emden conjecture in four space dimensions, Adv. Math., 221 (2009), 1409-1427.  doi: 10.1016/j.aim.2009.02.014.  Google Scholar [32] M. A. S. Souto, A priori estimates and existence of positive solutions of non-linear cooperative elliptic systems, Differential Integral Equations, 8 (1995), 1245-1258.   Google Scholar [33] E. M. Stein, Singular Integrals and Differentiability Properties of Functions, Princeton Mathematical Series, No. 30 Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1970.   Google Scholar [34] R. Zhuo and Y. Li, Liouville theorem for the higher-order fractional Laplacian, Commun. Contemp. Math., 21 (2019), 1850005, 19 pp. doi: 10.1142/S0219199718500050.  Google Scholar

show all references

##### References:
 [1] A. Biswas, Liouville type results for systems of equations involving fractional Laplacian in exterior domains, Nonlinearity, 32 (2019), 2246-2268.  doi: 10.1088/1361-6544/ab091b.  Google Scholar [2] L. Caffarelli and L. Silvestre, An extension problem related to the fractional Laplacian, Comm. PDE., 32 (2007), 1245-1260.  doi: 10.1080/03605300600987306.  Google Scholar [3] D. Cao and W. Dai, Classification of nonnegative solutions to a bi-harmonic equation with Hartree type nonlinearity, Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh Sect. A, 149 (2019), 979-994.  doi: 10.1017/prm.2018.67.  Google Scholar [4] D. Cao, W. Dai and G. Qin, Super poly-harmonic properties, Liouville theorems and classification of nonnegative solutions to equations involving higher-order fractional Laplacians, preprint, arXiv: 1905.04300. Google Scholar [5] W. Chen, W. Dai and G. Qin, Liouville type theorems, a priori estimates and existence of solutions for critical order Hardy-Hénon equations in $\mathbb{R}^n$, preprint, arXiv: 1808.06609. Google Scholar [6] W. Chen, Y. Fang and R. Yang, Liouville theorems involving the fractional Laplacian on a half space, Adv. Math., 274 (2015), 167-198.  doi: 10.1016/j.aim.2014.12.013.  Google Scholar [7] W. Chen and C. Li, Classification of solutions of some nonlinear elliptic equations, Duke Math. J., 63 (1991), 615-622.  doi: 10.1215/S0012-7094-91-06325-8.  Google Scholar [8] W. Chen and C. Li, Super polyharmonic property of solutions for PDE systems and its applications, Comm. Pure Appl. Anal., 12 (2013), 2497-2514.  doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2013.12.2497.  Google Scholar [9] W. Chen, Y. Li and P. Ma, The Fractional Laplacian, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., 2020,344 pp, https://doi.org/10.1142/10550. Google Scholar [10] W. Chen, C. Li and Y. Li, A direct method of moving planes for the fractional Laplacian, Adv. Math., 308 (2017), 404-437.  doi: 10.1016/j.aim.2016.11.038.  Google Scholar [11] W. Dai, Y. Fang, J. Huang, Y. Qin and B. Wang, Regularity and classification of solutions to static Hartree equations involving fractional Laplacians, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. - A, 39 (2019), 1389-1403.  doi: 10.3934/dcds.2018117.  Google Scholar [12] W. Dai and Z. Liu, Classification of positive solutions to a system of Hardy-Sobolev type equations, Acta Mathematica Scientia, 37 (2017), 1415-1436.  doi: 10.1016/S0252-9602(17)30082-6.  Google Scholar [13] W. Dai and Z. Liu, Classification of nonnegative solutions to static Schrödinger-Hartree and Schrödinger-Maxwell equations with combined nonlinearities, Calc. Var. Partial Differential Equations, 58 (2019), Paper No. 156, 24 pp. doi: 10.1007/s00526-019-1595-z.  Google Scholar [14] W. Dai, Z. Liu and G. Qin, Classification of nonnegative solutions to static Schrödinger-Hartree-Maxwell type equations, preprint, arXiv: 1909.00492. Google Scholar [15] W. Dai and G. Qin, Classification of nonnegative classical solutions to third-order equations, Adv. Math., 328 (2018), 822-857.  doi: 10.1016/j.aim.2018.02.016.  Google Scholar [16] W. Dai and G. Qin, Liouville type theorems for fractional and higher order Hénon-Hardy type equations via the method of scaling spheres, preprint, arXiv: 1810.02752. Google Scholar [17] W. Dai and G. Qin, Liouville type theorem for critical order Hénon-Lane-Emden type equations on a half space and its applications, preprint, arXiv: 1811.00881. Google Scholar [18] W. Dai and G. Qin, Liouville type theorems for elliptic equations with Dirichlet conditions in exterior domains, Journal of Differential Equations, 269 (2020), 7231-7252.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2020.05.026.  Google Scholar [19] W. Dai and G. Qin, Liouville type theorems for Hardy-Henon equations with concave nonlinearities, Math. Nachr., 293 (2020), 1084-1093.  doi: 10.1002/mana.201800532.  Google Scholar [20] W. Dai, G. Qin and Y. Zhang, Liouville type theorem for higher order Hénon equations on a half space, Nonlinear Analysis, 183 (2019), 284-302.  doi: 10.1016/j.na.2019.01.033.  Google Scholar [21] M. Fazly and J. Wei, On stable solutions of the fractional Hénon-Lane-Emden equation, Commun. Contemp. Math., 18 (2016), 1650005, 24 pp. doi: 10.1142/S021919971650005X.  Google Scholar [22] M. Fazly and J. Wei, On finite Morse index solutions of higher order fractional Lane-Emden equations, Amer. J. Math., 139 (2017), 433-460.  doi: 10.1353/ajm.2017.0011.  Google Scholar [23] T. Kulczycki, Properties of Green function of symmetric stable processes, Probability and Mathematical Statistics, 17 (1997), 339-364.   Google Scholar [24] K. Li and Z. Zhang, Proof of the Hénon-Lane-Emden conjecture in $\mathbb{R}^{3}$, Journal of Differential Equations, 266 (2017), 202-226.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2018.07.036.  Google Scholar [25] E. Mitidieri, Nonexistence of positive solutions of semilinear elliptic systems in $\mathbb{R}^{N}$, Differential Integral Equations, 9 (1996), 465-479.   Google Scholar [26] S. Peng, Liouville theorems for fractional and higher order Hénon-Hardy systems on $\mathbb{R}^n$, Complex Var. Elliptic Equ., (2020), 25 pp. doi: 10.1080/17476933.2020.1783661.  Google Scholar [27] P. Poláčik, P. Quittner and P. Souplet, Singularity and decay estimates in superlinear problems via Liouville-type theorems. I. Elliptic systems, Duke Math. J., 139 (2007), 555-579.  doi: 10.1215/S0012-7094-07-13935-8.  Google Scholar [28] A. Quaas and A. Xia, A Liouville type theorem for Lane-Emden systems involving the fractional Laplacian, Nonlinerity, 29 (2016), 2279-2297.  doi: 10.1088/0951-7715/29/8/2279.  Google Scholar [29] J. Serrin and H. Zou, Non-existence of positive solutions of Lane-Emden systems, Differential Integral Equations, 9 (1996), 635-653.   Google Scholar [30] L. Silvestre, Regularity of the obstacle problem for a fractional power of the Laplace operator, Comm. Pure Appl. Math., 60 (2007), 67-112.  doi: 10.1002/cpa.20153.  Google Scholar [31] P. Souplet, The proof of the Lane-Emden conjecture in four space dimensions, Adv. Math., 221 (2009), 1409-1427.  doi: 10.1016/j.aim.2009.02.014.  Google Scholar [32] M. A. S. Souto, A priori estimates and existence of positive solutions of non-linear cooperative elliptic systems, Differential Integral Equations, 8 (1995), 1245-1258.   Google Scholar [33] E. M. Stein, Singular Integrals and Differentiability Properties of Functions, Princeton Mathematical Series, No. 30 Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1970.   Google Scholar [34] R. Zhuo and Y. Li, Liouville theorem for the higher-order fractional Laplacian, Commun. Contemp. Math., 21 (2019), 1850005, 19 pp. doi: 10.1142/S0219199718500050.  Google Scholar
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