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Competitive-exclusion versus competitive-coexistence for systems in the plane

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  • We investigate global behavior of

    $x_{n+1} = T(x_{n}),\quad n=0,1,2,...$ (E)

    where $T:\mathcal{ R}\rightarrow \mathcal{ R}$ is a competitive (monotone with respect to the south-east ordering) map on a set $\mathcal{R}\subset \mathbb{R}^2$ with nonempty interior. We assume the existence of a unique fixed point $\overline{e}$ in the interior of $\mathcal{ R}$. We give very general conditions which are easily verifiable for (E) to exhibit either competitive-exclusion or competitive-coexistence. More specifically, we obtain sufficient conditions for the interior fixed point $\overline{ e}$ to be a global attractor when $\mathcal{ R}$ is a rectangular region. We also show that when $T$ is strongly monotone in $\mathcal{ R}^{\circ}$ (interior of $\mathcal{ R}$), $\mathcal{ R}$ is convex, the unique interior equilibrium $\overline{ e}$ is a saddle, and a technical condition is satisfied, the corresponding global stable and unstable manifolds are the graphs of monotonic functions, and the global stable manifold splits the domain into two connected regions, which under additional conditions on $\mathcal{R}$ and on $T$ are shown to be basins of attraction of fixed points on the boundary of $\mathcal{R}$. Applications of the main results to specific difference equations are given.

    Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary: 37E99; Secondary: 39A10, 39A11.

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