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Bifurcations of a nongeneric heteroclinic loop with nonhyperbolic equilibria

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  • In this paper, using the local moving frame approach, we investigate bifurcations of nongeneric heteroclinic loop with a nonhyperbolic equilibrium $p_1$ and a hyperbolic saddle $p_2$, where $p_1$ is assumed to undergo a transcritical bifurcation. Firstly, we establish the persistence of a nongeneric heteroclinic loop, the existence of a homoclinic loop and a periodic orbit when the transcritical bifurcation does not occur. Secondly, bifurcations of a nongeneric heteroclinic loop accompanied with a transcritical bifurcation are discussed. We obtain the existence of heteroclinic orbits, a homoclinic loop, a heteroclinic loop and a periodic orbit. Some bifurcation patterns different from the case of the generic heteroclinic loop accompanied with transcritical bifurcation are revealed. The results achieved here can be extended to higher dimensional systems.
    Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary: 34C23, 37G10; Secondary: 34D09.

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