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March  2020, 25(3): 981-999. doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2019199

Spreading speed of a degenerate and cooperative epidemic model with free boundaries

1. 

School of Mathematics and Statistics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730000, China

2. 

School of Science and Technology, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, 2351, Australia

Corresponding author

Received  January 2019 Revised  February 2019 Published  March 2020 Early access  September 2019

This paper deals with the spreading speed of the disease described by a partially degenerate and cooperative epidemic model with free boundaries. We show that the spreading speed is determined by a semi-wave problem. To find such a semi-wave solution, we prove the existence of a monotone solution to a reduced ODE by an upper and lower solution approach. And then we establish the uniqueness of the semi-wave solution via the sliding method. It is demonstrated that the precise asymptotic spreading speed is less than the minimal speed of traveling waves.

Citation: Meng Zhao, Wan-Tong Li, Wenjie Ni. Spreading speed of a degenerate and cooperative epidemic model with free boundaries. Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems - B, 2020, 25 (3) : 981-999. doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2019199
References:
[1]

I. AhnS. Beak and Z. Lin, The spreading fronts of an infective environment in a man-environment-man epidemic model, Appl. Math. Model., 40 (2016), 7082-7101.  doi: 10.1016/j.apm.2016.02.038.

[2]

G. BuntingY. Du and K. Krakowski, Spreading speed revisited: analysis of a free boundary model, Netw. Heterog. Media, 7 (2012), 583-603.  doi: 10.3934/nhm.2012.7.583.

[3]

V. Capasso and L. Maddalena, Convergence to equilibrium states for a reaction-diffusion system modeling the spatial spread of a class of bacterial and viral diseases, J. Math. Biol., 13 (1981/82), 173-184.  doi: 10.1007/BF00275212.

[4]

V. Capasso and S. L. Paveri-Fontana, A mathematical model for the 1973 cholera epidemic in the European Mediterranean region, Rev. d'Epidemiol. Sante Publique, 27 (1979), 32-121. 

[5]

E.A. Coddington and N. Levinson, Theory of Ordinary Differential Equations, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York-Toronto-London, 1955.

[6]

Y. DuZ. Guo and R. Peng, A diffusive logistic model with a free boundary in time-periodic environment, J. Funct. Anal., 265 (2013), 2089-2142.  doi: 10.1016/j.jfa.2013.07.016.

[7]

Y. Du and Z. Lin, Spreading-vanishing dichotomy in the diffusive logistic model with a free boundary, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 42 (2010), 377-405.  doi: 10.1137/110822608.

[8]

Y. Du and Z. Lin, The diffusive competition model with a free boundary: Invasion of a superior or inferior competitor, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. Ser. B, 19 (2014), 3105-3132.  doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2014.19.3105.

[9]

Y. Du and B. Lou, Spreading and vanishing in nonlinear diffusion problems with free boundaries, J. Eur. Math. Soc., 17 (2015), 2673-2724.  doi: 10.4171/JEMS/568.

[10]

Y. DuH. Matsuzawa and M. Zhou, Sharp estimate of the spreading speed determined by nonlinear free boundary problems, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 46 (2014), 375-396.  doi: 10.1137/130908063.

[11]

Y. DuM. Wang and M. Zhou, Semi-wave and spreading speed for the diffusive competition model with a free boundary, J. Math. Pures Appl., 107 (2017), 253-287.  doi: 10.1016/j.matpur.2016.06.005.

[12]

Y. Du and C. H. Wu, Spreading with two speeds and mass segregation in a diffusive competition system with free boundaries, Calc. Var. Partial Differential Equations, 57 (2018), Art. 52, 36 pp. doi: 10.1007/s00526-018-1339-5.

[13]

J. GeK. I. KimZ. Lin and H. Zhu, A SIS reaction-diffusion-advection model in a low-risk and high-risk domain, J. Differential Equations, 259 (2015), 5486-5509.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2015.06.035.

[14]

H. GuB. Lou and M. Zhou, Long time behavior of solutions of Fisher-KPP equation with advection and free boundaries, J. Funct. Anal., 269 (2015), 1714-1768.  doi: 10.1016/j.jfa.2015.07.002.

[15]

J. S. Guo and C. H. Wu, On a free boundary problem for a two-species weak competition system, J. Dynam. Differential Equations, 24 (2012), 873-895.  doi: 10.1007/s10884-012-9267-0.

[16]

K. I. KimZ. Lin and Q. Zhang, An SIR epidemic model with free boundary, Nonlinear Anal. Real World Appl., 14 (2013), 1992-2001.  doi: 10.1016/j.nonrwa.2013.02.003.

[17]

Z. Lin, A free boundary problem for a predator-prey model, Nonlinearity, 20 (2007), 1883-1892.  doi: 10.1088/0951-7715/20/8/004.

[18]

Z. Lin and H. Zhu, Spatial spreading model and dynamics of West Nile virus in birds and mosquitoes with free boundary, J. Math. Biol., 75 (2017), 1381-1409.  doi: 10.1007/s00285-017-1124-7.

[19]

J. Wang and L. Zhang, Invasion by an inferior or superior competitor: A diffusive competition model with a free boundary in a heterogeneous environment, J. Math. Anal. Appl., 423 (2015), 377-398.  doi: 10.1016/j.jmaa.2014.09.055.

[20]

M. Wang, On some free boundary problems of the prey-predator model, J. Differential Equations, 256 (2014), 3365-3394.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2014.02.013.

[21]

M. Wang and J. Zhao, Free boundary problems for a Lotka-Volterra competition system, J. Dynam. Differential Equations, 26 (2014), 655-672.  doi: 10.1007/s10884-014-9363-4.

[22]

M. Wang and J. Zhao, A free boundary problem for the predator-prey model with double free boundaries, J. Dynam. Differential Equations, 29 (2017), 957-979.  doi: 10.1007/s10884-015-9503-5.

[23]

M. Wang and Y. Zhang, Dynamics for a diffusive prey-predator model with different free boundaries, J. Differential Equations, 264 (2018), 3527-3558.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2017.11.027.

[24]

Z. WangH. Nie and Y. Du, Asymptotic spreading speed for the weak competition system with a free boundary, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., 39 (2019), 5223-5262.  doi: 10.3934/dcds.2019213.

[25]

Z. WangH. Nie and Y. Du, Spreading speed for a West Nile virus model with free boundary, J. Math. Biol., 79 (2019), 433-466.  doi: 10.1007/s00285-019-01363-2.

[26]

J. Wu and X. Zou, Traveling wave fronts of reaction-diffusion systems with delay, J. Dynam. Differential Equations, 13 (2001), 651-687.  doi: 10.1023/A:1016690424892.

[27]

X. Q. Zhao and W. Wang, Fisher waves in an epidemic model, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. Ser. B, 4 (2004), 1117-1128.  doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2004.4.1117.

show all references

References:
[1]

I. AhnS. Beak and Z. Lin, The spreading fronts of an infective environment in a man-environment-man epidemic model, Appl. Math. Model., 40 (2016), 7082-7101.  doi: 10.1016/j.apm.2016.02.038.

[2]

G. BuntingY. Du and K. Krakowski, Spreading speed revisited: analysis of a free boundary model, Netw. Heterog. Media, 7 (2012), 583-603.  doi: 10.3934/nhm.2012.7.583.

[3]

V. Capasso and L. Maddalena, Convergence to equilibrium states for a reaction-diffusion system modeling the spatial spread of a class of bacterial and viral diseases, J. Math. Biol., 13 (1981/82), 173-184.  doi: 10.1007/BF00275212.

[4]

V. Capasso and S. L. Paveri-Fontana, A mathematical model for the 1973 cholera epidemic in the European Mediterranean region, Rev. d'Epidemiol. Sante Publique, 27 (1979), 32-121. 

[5]

E.A. Coddington and N. Levinson, Theory of Ordinary Differential Equations, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York-Toronto-London, 1955.

[6]

Y. DuZ. Guo and R. Peng, A diffusive logistic model with a free boundary in time-periodic environment, J. Funct. Anal., 265 (2013), 2089-2142.  doi: 10.1016/j.jfa.2013.07.016.

[7]

Y. Du and Z. Lin, Spreading-vanishing dichotomy in the diffusive logistic model with a free boundary, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 42 (2010), 377-405.  doi: 10.1137/110822608.

[8]

Y. Du and Z. Lin, The diffusive competition model with a free boundary: Invasion of a superior or inferior competitor, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. Ser. B, 19 (2014), 3105-3132.  doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2014.19.3105.

[9]

Y. Du and B. Lou, Spreading and vanishing in nonlinear diffusion problems with free boundaries, J. Eur. Math. Soc., 17 (2015), 2673-2724.  doi: 10.4171/JEMS/568.

[10]

Y. DuH. Matsuzawa and M. Zhou, Sharp estimate of the spreading speed determined by nonlinear free boundary problems, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 46 (2014), 375-396.  doi: 10.1137/130908063.

[11]

Y. DuM. Wang and M. Zhou, Semi-wave and spreading speed for the diffusive competition model with a free boundary, J. Math. Pures Appl., 107 (2017), 253-287.  doi: 10.1016/j.matpur.2016.06.005.

[12]

Y. Du and C. H. Wu, Spreading with two speeds and mass segregation in a diffusive competition system with free boundaries, Calc. Var. Partial Differential Equations, 57 (2018), Art. 52, 36 pp. doi: 10.1007/s00526-018-1339-5.

[13]

J. GeK. I. KimZ. Lin and H. Zhu, A SIS reaction-diffusion-advection model in a low-risk and high-risk domain, J. Differential Equations, 259 (2015), 5486-5509.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2015.06.035.

[14]

H. GuB. Lou and M. Zhou, Long time behavior of solutions of Fisher-KPP equation with advection and free boundaries, J. Funct. Anal., 269 (2015), 1714-1768.  doi: 10.1016/j.jfa.2015.07.002.

[15]

J. S. Guo and C. H. Wu, On a free boundary problem for a two-species weak competition system, J. Dynam. Differential Equations, 24 (2012), 873-895.  doi: 10.1007/s10884-012-9267-0.

[16]

K. I. KimZ. Lin and Q. Zhang, An SIR epidemic model with free boundary, Nonlinear Anal. Real World Appl., 14 (2013), 1992-2001.  doi: 10.1016/j.nonrwa.2013.02.003.

[17]

Z. Lin, A free boundary problem for a predator-prey model, Nonlinearity, 20 (2007), 1883-1892.  doi: 10.1088/0951-7715/20/8/004.

[18]

Z. Lin and H. Zhu, Spatial spreading model and dynamics of West Nile virus in birds and mosquitoes with free boundary, J. Math. Biol., 75 (2017), 1381-1409.  doi: 10.1007/s00285-017-1124-7.

[19]

J. Wang and L. Zhang, Invasion by an inferior or superior competitor: A diffusive competition model with a free boundary in a heterogeneous environment, J. Math. Anal. Appl., 423 (2015), 377-398.  doi: 10.1016/j.jmaa.2014.09.055.

[20]

M. Wang, On some free boundary problems of the prey-predator model, J. Differential Equations, 256 (2014), 3365-3394.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2014.02.013.

[21]

M. Wang and J. Zhao, Free boundary problems for a Lotka-Volterra competition system, J. Dynam. Differential Equations, 26 (2014), 655-672.  doi: 10.1007/s10884-014-9363-4.

[22]

M. Wang and J. Zhao, A free boundary problem for the predator-prey model with double free boundaries, J. Dynam. Differential Equations, 29 (2017), 957-979.  doi: 10.1007/s10884-015-9503-5.

[23]

M. Wang and Y. Zhang, Dynamics for a diffusive prey-predator model with different free boundaries, J. Differential Equations, 264 (2018), 3527-3558.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2017.11.027.

[24]

Z. WangH. Nie and Y. Du, Asymptotic spreading speed for the weak competition system with a free boundary, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., 39 (2019), 5223-5262.  doi: 10.3934/dcds.2019213.

[25]

Z. WangH. Nie and Y. Du, Spreading speed for a West Nile virus model with free boundary, J. Math. Biol., 79 (2019), 433-466.  doi: 10.1007/s00285-019-01363-2.

[26]

J. Wu and X. Zou, Traveling wave fronts of reaction-diffusion systems with delay, J. Dynam. Differential Equations, 13 (2001), 651-687.  doi: 10.1023/A:1016690424892.

[27]

X. Q. Zhao and W. Wang, Fisher waves in an epidemic model, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. Ser. B, 4 (2004), 1117-1128.  doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2004.4.1117.

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