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Boundary layer effects on ionic flows via Poisson-Nernst-Planck systems with nonuniform ion sizes

  • *Corresponding author: Mingji Zhang

    *Corresponding author: Mingji Zhang

This work was supported by MPS Simons Foundation (No. 628308)

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  • We study a one-dimensional Poisson-Nernst-Planck model with two oppositely charged particles, zero permanent charges and nonuniform finite ion sizes through a local hard-sphere model. Of particular interest is to examine the boundary layer effects on ionic flows systematically in terms of individual fluxes, the total flow rate of charges (current-voltage relations) and the total flow rate of matter. This is particularly important because boundary layers of charge are particularly likely to create artifacts over long distances, and this could dramatically affect the behavior of ionic flows. Several critical potentials are identified, which play unique and critical roles in examining the dynamics of ionic flows. Some can be estimated experimentally. Numerical simulations are performed for a better understanding and further illustrating our analytical results. We believe the analysis can provide complementary information of the qualitative properties of ionic flows and help one better understand the mechanism of ionic flow through membrane channels.

    Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary: 34A26, 34B16, 34D15; Secondary: 37D10, 92C35.

    Citation:

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  • Figure 1.  Graph of function $ F(x) $ as $ (\sigma, \rho)\to (1^+,1^{-}) $ with $ \sigma+\rho<2 $ helps understand the result stated in Lemma 3.2. To be specific, the graph corresponds to the statement (ii) of the lemma with $ \lambda>1 $

    Figure 2.  Function $ J_{11}(V) $ (solid line) for $ x>x_2^* $ (left figure) and $ 1<x<x_2^* $ (right figure) with $ \sigma = 1.001 $ and $ \rho = 0.998 $, where $ x_2^* = 1.01978 $; and function $ J_{11}^{EN}(V) $ (dashed line with star) with $ \sigma = \rho = 1 $. In the left figure, the slope of $ J_{11} $ is $ 0.291 $ while the one of $ J_{11}^{EN} $ is $ 0.29 $

    Figure 3.  Function $ J_{21}(V) $ (solid line) for $ x>x_2^* $ (left figure) and $ 1<x<x_2^* $ (right figure) with $ \sigma = 1.001 $ and $ \rho = 0.998 $, where $ x_2^* = 1.01978 $; and function $ J_{21}^{EN}(V) $ (dashed line with star) with $ \sigma = \rho = 1 $. In the left figure, the slope of $ J_{21} $ is $ -0.291 $ while the one of $ J_{21}^{EN} $ is $ -0.29 $

    Figure 4.  Function $ I_{1}(V) $ (solid line) for $ x>x_2^{*} $ (left figure) and $ 1<x<x_2^{*} $ (right figure) with $ \sigma = 1.001 $ and $ \rho = 0.998 $, where $ x_2^* = 1.01978 $; and function $ I_{1}^{EN}(V) $ (dashed line with star) with $ \sigma = \rho = 1 $. In the left figure, the slope of $ I_{1} $ is $ 9.7945\times10^{-10} $ while the one of $ I_{1}^{EN} $ is $ 9.7617\times10^{-10} $

    Figure 5.  Function $ T_{1}(V) $ for $ x>x_2^{*} $ (left figure) and $ 1<x<x_2^{*} $ (right figure)with $ \sigma = 1.001 $ and $ \rho = 0.998 $, where $ x_2^* = 1.01978 $; and function $ T_{1}^{EN}(V) $ (dashed line with star) with $ \sigma = \rho = 1 $. In the left figure, the slope of $ T_{1} $ is $ -2.0311\times 10^{-10} $ while the one of $ T_{1}^{EN} $ is $ -2.0243\times 10^{-10} $

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