# American Institute of Mathematical Sciences

March  2010, 3(1): 61-84. doi: 10.3934/dcdss.2010.3.61

## Geometric discretization of nonholonomic systems with symmetries

 1 California Institute of Technology, Control and Dynamical Systems, Pasadena, CA 91125, United States 2 Control and Dynamical Systems, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, United States 3 University of Southern California, Robotic Embedded Systems Laboratory, Los Angeles, California 90089-2905, United States

Received  September 2008 Revised  May 2009 Published  December 2009

The paper develops discretization schemes for mechanical systems for integration and optimization purposes through a discrete geometric approach. We focus on systems with symmetries, controllable shape (internal variables), and nonholonomic constraints. Motivated by the abundance of important models from science and engineering with such properties, we propose numerical methods specifically designed to account for their special geometric structure. At the core of the formulation lies a discrete variational principle that respects the structure of the state space and provides a framework for constructing accurate and numerically stable integrators. The dynamics of the systems we study is derived by vertical and horizontal splitting of the variational principle with respect to a nonholonomic connection that encodes the kinematic constraints and symmetries. We formulate a discrete analog of this principle by evaluating the Lagrangian and the connection at selected points along a discretized trajectory and derive discrete momentum equation and discrete reduced Euler-Lagrange equations resulting from the splitting of this principle. A family of nonholonomic integrators that are general, yet simple and easy to implement, are then obtained and applied to two examples-the steered robotic car and the snakeboard. Their numerical advantages are confirmed through comparisons with standard methods.
Citation: Marin Kobilarov, Jerrold E. Marsden, Gaurav S. Sukhatme. Geometric discretization of nonholonomic systems with symmetries. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - S, 2010, 3 (1) : 61-84. doi: 10.3934/dcdss.2010.3.61
 [1] Rama Ayoub, Aziz Hamdouni, Dina Razafindralandy. A new Hodge operator in discrete exterior calculus. Application to fluid mechanics. Communications on Pure & Applied Analysis, , () : -. doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2021062 [2] Manuel de León, Víctor M. Jiménez, Manuel Lainz. Contact Hamiltonian and Lagrangian systems with nonholonomic constraints. Journal of Geometric Mechanics, 2021, 13 (1) : 25-53. doi: 10.3934/jgm.2021001 [3] Peter Benner, Jens Saak, M. Monir Uddin. Balancing based model reduction for structured index-2 unstable descriptor systems with application to flow control. Numerical Algebra, Control & Optimization, 2016, 6 (1) : 1-20. doi: 10.3934/naco.2016.6.1 [4] Davi Obata. Symmetries of vector fields: The diffeomorphism centralizer. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems, 2021  doi: 10.3934/dcds.2021063 [5] Yuri Fedorov, Božidar Jovanović. Continuous and discrete Neumann systems on Stiefel varieties as matrix generalizations of the Jacobi–Mumford systems. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems, 2021, 41 (6) : 2559-2599. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2020375 [6] Emma D'Aniello, Saber Elaydi. The structure of $\omega$-limit sets of asymptotically non-autonomous discrete dynamical systems. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - B, 2020, 25 (3) : 903-915. doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2019195 [7] Elena K. Kostousova. External polyhedral estimates of reachable sets of discrete-time systems with integral bounds on additive terms. Mathematical Control & Related Fields, 2021  doi: 10.3934/mcrf.2021015 [8] Tadeusz Kaczorek, Andrzej Ruszewski. Analysis of the fractional descriptor discrete-time linear systems by the use of the shuffle algorithm. Journal of Computational Dynamics, 2021  doi: 10.3934/jcd.2021007 [9] Elimhan N. Mahmudov. Second order discrete time-varying and time-invariant linear continuous systems and Kalman type conditions. Numerical Algebra, Control & Optimization, 2021  doi: 10.3934/naco.2021010 [10] Sergi Simon. Linearised higher variational equations. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems, 2014, 34 (11) : 4827-4854. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2014.34.4827 [11] Zhenbing Gong, Yanping Chen, Wenyu Tao. Jump and variational inequalities for averaging operators with variable kernels. Communications on Pure & Applied Analysis, , () : -. doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2021045 [12] Huy Dinh, Harbir Antil, Yanlai Chen, Elena Cherkaev, Akil Narayan. Model reduction for fractional elliptic problems using Kato's formula. Mathematical Control & Related Fields, 2021  doi: 10.3934/mcrf.2021004 [13] Xiaofei Liu, Yong Wang. Weakening convergence conditions of a potential reduction method for tensor complementarity problems. Journal of Industrial & Management Optimization, 2021  doi: 10.3934/jimo.2021080 [14] Palash Sarkar, Subhadip Singha. Classical reduction of gap SVP to LWE: A concrete security analysis. Advances in Mathematics of Communications, 2021  doi: 10.3934/amc.2021004 [15] Xue-Ping Luo, Yi-Bin Xiao, Wei Li. Strict feasibility of variational inclusion problems in reflexive Banach spaces. Journal of Industrial & Management Optimization, 2020, 16 (5) : 2495-2502. doi: 10.3934/jimo.2019065 [16] Livia Betz, Irwin Yousept. Optimal control of elliptic variational inequalities with bounded and unbounded operators. Mathematical Control & Related Fields, 2021  doi: 10.3934/mcrf.2021009 [17] Tomasz Kosmala, Markus Riedle. Variational solutions of stochastic partial differential equations with cylindrical Lévy noise. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - B, 2021, 26 (6) : 2879-2898. doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2020209 [18] Tao Wang. Variational relations for metric mean dimension and rate distortion dimension. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems, 2021  doi: 10.3934/dcds.2021050 [19] Chiun-Chuan Chen, Hung-Yu Chien, Chih-Chiang Huang. A variational approach to three-phase traveling waves for a gradient system. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems, 2021  doi: 10.3934/dcds.2021055 [20] Jianxun Liu, Shengjie Li, Yingrang Xu. Quantitative stability of the ERM formulation for a class of stochastic linear variational inequalities. Journal of Industrial & Management Optimization, 2021  doi: 10.3934/jimo.2021083

2019 Impact Factor: 1.233