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July  2021, 14(7): 2213-2228. doi: 10.3934/dcdss.2020252

## Melnikov analysis of the nonlocal nanobeam resting on fractional-order softening nonlinear viscoelastic foundations

 1 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, The University of Maroua, Maroua, 814, Cameroon 2 Laboratory of Mechanics, Materials and Structures, Doctoral research unit in Physics and Applications, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, 812, Cameroon

* Corresponding author: Guy Joseph Eyebe

Received  April 2019 Revised  June 2019 Published  July 2021 Early access  January 2020

In the present study, the dynamics of nanobeam resting on fractional order softening nonlinear viscoelastic pasternack foundations is studied. The Hamilton principle is used to derive the nonlinear equation of the motion. Approximate analytical solution is obtained by applying the standard averaging method. The Melnikov method is used to investigate the chaotic behaviors of device, the critical curve separating the chaotic and non-chaotic regions are found. It is shown that the distance between chaotic region and non-chaotic region in this kind of structure depends strongly on the fractional order parameter.

Citation: Guy Joseph Eyebe, Betchewe Gambo, Alidou Mohamadou, Timoleon Crepin Kofane. Melnikov analysis of the nonlocal nanobeam resting on fractional-order softening nonlinear viscoelastic foundations. Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems - S, 2021, 14 (7) : 2213-2228. doi: 10.3934/dcdss.2020252
##### References:
 [1] J. D. Achenbach and C. Sun, Moving load on a flexibly supported timochenko beam, Int. J. Solids Struct., 1 (1965), 353-370. [2] L. M. Anague Tabejieu, B. R. Nana Nbendjo and P. Woafo, On the dynamics of rayleigh beams resting on fractional-order viscoelastic pasternak foundations subjected to moving loads, Chaos Solitons Fract., 93 (2016), 39-47.  doi: 10.1016/j.chaos.2016.10.001. [3] A. A. Andronov and A. Witt, Towards mathematical theory of capture, Archiv. fur Electrotechnik, 24 (1930), 99-110. [4] H. Askari, H. Jamchidifar and B. Fidan, High resolution mass identification using nonlinear vibrations of nanoplates, Measurement, 101 (2017), 166-174.  doi: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.012. [5] M. Aydogdu, Axial vibration analysis of nanorods (carbon nanotubes) embedded in an elastic medium using nonlocal elasticity, Mech. Res. Commun., 43 (2012), 34-40.  doi: 10.1016/j.mechrescom.2012.02.001. [6] M. Aydogdu and M. Arda, Torsional vibration analysis of double walled carbon nanotubes using nonlocal elasticity, Int. J. Mech. Mater. Des., 12 (2016), 71-84.  doi: 10.1007/s10999-014-9292-8. [7] B. E. Demartini, H. E. Butterfield, J. Moehlis and K. L. Turner, Chaos in microelectromechanical oscillator governed by the nonlinear Mathieu equation, J. Microelec. Syst., 16 (2007), 1314-1323.  doi: 10.1109/JMEMS.2007.906757. [8] H. Ding, Q. L. Chen and S. P. Yang, Convergence of garlekin truncation for dynamic response of finite beams on nonlinear foundations under a moving load, J. Sound Vib., 331 (2012), 2426-2442. [9] A. C. Eringen, On differential equations of nonlocal elasticity and solution of screw dislocation and surface waves, J. Appl. Phys., 54 (1983), 4703-4710.  doi: 10.1063/1.332803. [10] A. C. Eringen, Nonlocal Continuum Fields Theories, Springer, USA, 2002. [11] E. Ghavanloo, F. Daneshmand and M. Rafiei, Vibration and instability analysis of carbon nanotubes conveying fluid and resting on a linear viscoelastic Winkler foundation, Physica E, 42 (2010), 2218-2224. [12] J. Guckenheimer and P. Holmes, Nonlinear Oscillations, Dynamical System and Bifurcation of Vector Fields, Springer-Verlag, USA, 1983. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4612-1140-2. [13] Y. Haitao and Y. Yuan, Analytical solution for an infinite euler-bernoulli beam on a visco-elastic foundation subjected to arbitrary dynamic loads, J. Eng. Mech., 140 (2014), 542-551. [14] Z. Hryniewicz, Dynamics of rayleigh beam on nonlinear foundation due to moving load using adomian decomposition and coiflet expansion, Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 31 (2011), 1123-1131.  doi: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2011.03.013. [15] B. Karami, M. Janghorban and L. Li, On guided wave propagation in fully clamped porous functionally graded nanoplates, Acta Astronaut, 143 (2018), 380-390.  doi: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2017.12.011. [16] M. H. Kargonovin, D. Younesian, D. J. Thompson and C. J. C. Jones, Response of beams on the nonlinear viscoelastic foundations to harmonic moving loads, Comput. Struct., 83 (2005), 1865-1877. [17] M. A. Kazemi-Lari, S. A. Fazelzadeh and E. Ghavanloo, Non-conservative instability of cantilever carbon nanotubes resting on viscoelastic foundation, Physica E, 44 (2012), 1623-1630.  doi: 10.1016/j.physe.2012.04.007. [18] K. Kiani, meshless approach for free transverse vibration of embedded single walled nanotubes with arbitrary boundary conditions accounting for nonlocal effect, Int. J. Mech. Sci., 52 (2010), 1343-1356.  doi: 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2010.06.010. [19] K. Kiani, Vibration analysis of elastically restrained double-walled carbon nanotubes on elastic foundation subject to axial load using nonlocal shear deformable beam theories, Int. J. Mech. Sci., 68 (2013), 16-34. [20] K. Kiani, Nonlinear vibrations of a single-walled carbon nanotube for delivering of nanoparticles, Nonlinear Dyn., 76 (2014), 1885-1903.  doi: 10.1007/s11071-014-1255-y. [21] H. L. Lee and W. J. Chang, Vibration analysis of a viscous-fluid-conveying single-walled carbon nanotube embedded in an elastic medium, Physica E, 41 (2009), 529-532.  doi: 10.1016/j.physe.2008.10.002. [22] P. M. Mathews, Vibrations of a beam on elastic foundation, J. Appl. Math. Mech., 38 (1958), 105-115.  doi: 10.1002/zamm.19580380305. [23] I. Mehdipour, A. Barari, A. Kimiaeifar and G. Domairry, Vibrational analysis of curved single-walled carbon nanotube on a pasternak elastic foundation, Adv. Eng. Softw., 48 (2012), 1-5.  doi: 10.1016/j.advengsoft.2012.01.004. [24] V. K. Melnikov, On the stability of the center of some periodic pertubation, Trans. Moscow Math. Soc., 12 (1963), 1-57. [25] G. Mikhasev, On localized modes of free vibrations of single-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in nonhomogeneous elastic medium., Z Angew Math. Mech., 94 (2014), 130-141.  doi: 10.1002/zamm.201200140. [26] M. Mir and M. Tahani, Chaotic behavior of nonlocal nanobeam resting on a nonlinear viscoelastic foundation subjected to harmonic excitation, Modares Mech. Eng., 18 (2018), 264-272. [27] T. Murmu and S. C. Pradhan, Buckling analysis of a single-walled carbon nanotube embedded in an elastic medium based on nonlocal elasticity and Timoshenko beam theory and using DQM, Physica E, 41 (2009), 1232-1239.  doi: 10.1016/j.physe.2009.02.004. [28] K. B. Mustapha and Z. W. Zhong, Free transverse vibration of an axially loaded non-prismatic single-walled carbon nanotube embedded in a two parameter elastic medium, Comput. Mater. Sci., 50 (2010), 742-751.  doi: 10.1016/j.commatsci.2010.10.005. [29] A. H. Nayfeh, Introduction to Pertubation Techniques,, John Wiley, New York, 1981. [30] A. H. Nayfeh and D. T. Mook, Nonlinear Oscillations, John Wiley, New York, 1979. [31] B. R. Nana Nbendjo and P. Woafo, Active control with delay of horseshoes chaos using piezoelectric absorber buckled beam under parametric excitation, Chaos Solitons Fract, 32 (2007), 73-79.  doi: 10.1016/j.chaos.2005.10.070. [32] B. R. Nana Nbendjo and P. Woafo, Modelling of the dynamics of Euler's beam by $\phi^5$ potential, Mech. Res. Commun., 38 (2011), 542-545. [33] H. Niknam and M. M. Aghdam, A semi analytical approach for large amplitude free vibration and buckling of nonlocal FG beams resting on elastic foundation, Compos. Struct., 119 (2015), 452-462.  doi: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2014.09.023. [34] I. Petras, Fractional nonlinear systems: Modeling, analysis and simulation, Higher Education Press , Beijing, 2011. [35] S. C. Pradhan and G. K. Reddy, Buckling analysis of single walled carbon nanotube on Winkler foundation using nonlocal elasticity theory and DTM, Comput. Mater. Sci., 50 (2011), 1052-1056.  doi: 10.1016/j.commatsci.2010.11.001. [36] M. Rafiei, S. R. Mohebpour and F. Daneshmand, Small-scale effect on the vibration of non-uniform carbon nanotubes conveying fluid and embedded in viscoelastic medium, Physica E, 44 (2012), 1372-1379.  doi: 10.1016/j.physe.2012.02.021. [37] G. Romano and R. Barreta, Nonlocal elasticity in nanobeams: The stress-driven integral model, Int. J. Eng. Sci., 115 (2017), 14-27.  doi: 10.1016/j.ijengsci.2017.03.002. [38] J. A. Sanders, F. Verhulst and J. Murdock, Averaging Methods in Nonlinear Dynamical Systems,, Springer Science and Business, New York, 2007. [39] E. J. Sapountzakis and A. Kampitsis, Nonlinear response of shear deformable beams on tensionless nonlinear viscoelastic foundation under moving loads, J. Sound Vib., 330 (2011), 5410-5426.  doi: 10.1016/j.jsv.2011.06.009. [40] Y. Shen, H. Y. Sing and H. Ma, Primary resonance of Duffing oscillator with two kinds of fractional-order derivatives, Int. J. Non-linear Mech., 47 (2012), 975-983. [41] M. S. Siewe and U. H. Hegazy, Homoclinic bifurcation and chaos control in MEMS resonators, Appl. Math. Model., 35 (2011), 5533–5552. doi: 10.1016/j.apm.2011.05.021. [42] N. Togun and S. M. Bagdatli, Nonlinear vibration of a nanobeam on pasternak elastic foundation based on nonlocal euler-bernoulli beam theory, Math. Comput. Appl., 21 (2016), 1-19.  doi: 10.3390/mca21010003. [43] B. L. Wang and K. F. Wang, Vibration analysis of embedded nanotubes using nonlocal continuum theory, Composites Part B Eng., 47 (2013), 96-101.  doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2012.10.043. [44] M. H. Yas and N. Samadi, Free vibrations and buckling analysis of carbon nanotube-reinforced composite Timoshenko beams on elastic foundation, Int. J. Press Vessels Piping, 98 (2012), 119-128.  doi: 10.1016/j.ijpvp.2012.07.012. [45] X. Zhang and L. Zhou, Melnikovs method for chaos of the nanoplate postulating nonlinear foundation, Appl. Math. Model., 61 (2018), 744-749.  doi: 10.1016/j.apm.2018.05.003.

show all references

##### References:
 [1] J. D. Achenbach and C. Sun, Moving load on a flexibly supported timochenko beam, Int. J. Solids Struct., 1 (1965), 353-370. [2] L. M. Anague Tabejieu, B. R. Nana Nbendjo and P. Woafo, On the dynamics of rayleigh beams resting on fractional-order viscoelastic pasternak foundations subjected to moving loads, Chaos Solitons Fract., 93 (2016), 39-47.  doi: 10.1016/j.chaos.2016.10.001. [3] A. A. Andronov and A. Witt, Towards mathematical theory of capture, Archiv. fur Electrotechnik, 24 (1930), 99-110. [4] H. Askari, H. Jamchidifar and B. Fidan, High resolution mass identification using nonlinear vibrations of nanoplates, Measurement, 101 (2017), 166-174.  doi: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.012. [5] M. Aydogdu, Axial vibration analysis of nanorods (carbon nanotubes) embedded in an elastic medium using nonlocal elasticity, Mech. Res. Commun., 43 (2012), 34-40.  doi: 10.1016/j.mechrescom.2012.02.001. [6] M. Aydogdu and M. Arda, Torsional vibration analysis of double walled carbon nanotubes using nonlocal elasticity, Int. J. Mech. Mater. Des., 12 (2016), 71-84.  doi: 10.1007/s10999-014-9292-8. [7] B. E. Demartini, H. E. Butterfield, J. Moehlis and K. L. Turner, Chaos in microelectromechanical oscillator governed by the nonlinear Mathieu equation, J. Microelec. Syst., 16 (2007), 1314-1323.  doi: 10.1109/JMEMS.2007.906757. [8] H. Ding, Q. L. Chen and S. P. Yang, Convergence of garlekin truncation for dynamic response of finite beams on nonlinear foundations under a moving load, J. Sound Vib., 331 (2012), 2426-2442. [9] A. C. Eringen, On differential equations of nonlocal elasticity and solution of screw dislocation and surface waves, J. Appl. Phys., 54 (1983), 4703-4710.  doi: 10.1063/1.332803. [10] A. C. Eringen, Nonlocal Continuum Fields Theories, Springer, USA, 2002. [11] E. Ghavanloo, F. Daneshmand and M. Rafiei, Vibration and instability analysis of carbon nanotubes conveying fluid and resting on a linear viscoelastic Winkler foundation, Physica E, 42 (2010), 2218-2224. [12] J. Guckenheimer and P. Holmes, Nonlinear Oscillations, Dynamical System and Bifurcation of Vector Fields, Springer-Verlag, USA, 1983. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4612-1140-2. [13] Y. Haitao and Y. Yuan, Analytical solution for an infinite euler-bernoulli beam on a visco-elastic foundation subjected to arbitrary dynamic loads, J. Eng. Mech., 140 (2014), 542-551. [14] Z. Hryniewicz, Dynamics of rayleigh beam on nonlinear foundation due to moving load using adomian decomposition and coiflet expansion, Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 31 (2011), 1123-1131.  doi: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2011.03.013. [15] B. Karami, M. Janghorban and L. Li, On guided wave propagation in fully clamped porous functionally graded nanoplates, Acta Astronaut, 143 (2018), 380-390.  doi: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2017.12.011. [16] M. H. Kargonovin, D. Younesian, D. J. Thompson and C. J. C. Jones, Response of beams on the nonlinear viscoelastic foundations to harmonic moving loads, Comput. Struct., 83 (2005), 1865-1877. [17] M. A. Kazemi-Lari, S. A. Fazelzadeh and E. Ghavanloo, Non-conservative instability of cantilever carbon nanotubes resting on viscoelastic foundation, Physica E, 44 (2012), 1623-1630.  doi: 10.1016/j.physe.2012.04.007. [18] K. Kiani, meshless approach for free transverse vibration of embedded single walled nanotubes with arbitrary boundary conditions accounting for nonlocal effect, Int. J. Mech. Sci., 52 (2010), 1343-1356.  doi: 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2010.06.010. [19] K. Kiani, Vibration analysis of elastically restrained double-walled carbon nanotubes on elastic foundation subject to axial load using nonlocal shear deformable beam theories, Int. J. Mech. Sci., 68 (2013), 16-34. [20] K. Kiani, Nonlinear vibrations of a single-walled carbon nanotube for delivering of nanoparticles, Nonlinear Dyn., 76 (2014), 1885-1903.  doi: 10.1007/s11071-014-1255-y. [21] H. L. Lee and W. J. Chang, Vibration analysis of a viscous-fluid-conveying single-walled carbon nanotube embedded in an elastic medium, Physica E, 41 (2009), 529-532.  doi: 10.1016/j.physe.2008.10.002. [22] P. M. Mathews, Vibrations of a beam on elastic foundation, J. Appl. Math. Mech., 38 (1958), 105-115.  doi: 10.1002/zamm.19580380305. [23] I. Mehdipour, A. Barari, A. Kimiaeifar and G. Domairry, Vibrational analysis of curved single-walled carbon nanotube on a pasternak elastic foundation, Adv. Eng. Softw., 48 (2012), 1-5.  doi: 10.1016/j.advengsoft.2012.01.004. [24] V. K. Melnikov, On the stability of the center of some periodic pertubation, Trans. Moscow Math. Soc., 12 (1963), 1-57. [25] G. Mikhasev, On localized modes of free vibrations of single-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in nonhomogeneous elastic medium., Z Angew Math. Mech., 94 (2014), 130-141.  doi: 10.1002/zamm.201200140. [26] M. Mir and M. Tahani, Chaotic behavior of nonlocal nanobeam resting on a nonlinear viscoelastic foundation subjected to harmonic excitation, Modares Mech. Eng., 18 (2018), 264-272. [27] T. Murmu and S. C. Pradhan, Buckling analysis of a single-walled carbon nanotube embedded in an elastic medium based on nonlocal elasticity and Timoshenko beam theory and using DQM, Physica E, 41 (2009), 1232-1239.  doi: 10.1016/j.physe.2009.02.004. [28] K. B. Mustapha and Z. W. Zhong, Free transverse vibration of an axially loaded non-prismatic single-walled carbon nanotube embedded in a two parameter elastic medium, Comput. Mater. Sci., 50 (2010), 742-751.  doi: 10.1016/j.commatsci.2010.10.005. [29] A. H. Nayfeh, Introduction to Pertubation Techniques,, John Wiley, New York, 1981. [30] A. H. Nayfeh and D. T. Mook, Nonlinear Oscillations, John Wiley, New York, 1979. [31] B. R. Nana Nbendjo and P. Woafo, Active control with delay of horseshoes chaos using piezoelectric absorber buckled beam under parametric excitation, Chaos Solitons Fract, 32 (2007), 73-79.  doi: 10.1016/j.chaos.2005.10.070. [32] B. R. Nana Nbendjo and P. Woafo, Modelling of the dynamics of Euler's beam by $\phi^5$ potential, Mech. Res. Commun., 38 (2011), 542-545. [33] H. Niknam and M. M. Aghdam, A semi analytical approach for large amplitude free vibration and buckling of nonlocal FG beams resting on elastic foundation, Compos. Struct., 119 (2015), 452-462.  doi: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2014.09.023. [34] I. Petras, Fractional nonlinear systems: Modeling, analysis and simulation, Higher Education Press , Beijing, 2011. [35] S. C. Pradhan and G. K. Reddy, Buckling analysis of single walled carbon nanotube on Winkler foundation using nonlocal elasticity theory and DTM, Comput. Mater. Sci., 50 (2011), 1052-1056.  doi: 10.1016/j.commatsci.2010.11.001. [36] M. Rafiei, S. R. Mohebpour and F. Daneshmand, Small-scale effect on the vibration of non-uniform carbon nanotubes conveying fluid and embedded in viscoelastic medium, Physica E, 44 (2012), 1372-1379.  doi: 10.1016/j.physe.2012.02.021. [37] G. Romano and R. Barreta, Nonlocal elasticity in nanobeams: The stress-driven integral model, Int. J. Eng. Sci., 115 (2017), 14-27.  doi: 10.1016/j.ijengsci.2017.03.002. [38] J. A. Sanders, F. Verhulst and J. Murdock, Averaging Methods in Nonlinear Dynamical Systems,, Springer Science and Business, New York, 2007. [39] E. J. Sapountzakis and A. Kampitsis, Nonlinear response of shear deformable beams on tensionless nonlinear viscoelastic foundation under moving loads, J. Sound Vib., 330 (2011), 5410-5426.  doi: 10.1016/j.jsv.2011.06.009. [40] Y. Shen, H. Y. Sing and H. Ma, Primary resonance of Duffing oscillator with two kinds of fractional-order derivatives, Int. J. Non-linear Mech., 47 (2012), 975-983. [41] M. S. Siewe and U. H. Hegazy, Homoclinic bifurcation and chaos control in MEMS resonators, Appl. Math. Model., 35 (2011), 5533–5552. doi: 10.1016/j.apm.2011.05.021. [42] N. Togun and S. M. Bagdatli, Nonlinear vibration of a nanobeam on pasternak elastic foundation based on nonlocal euler-bernoulli beam theory, Math. Comput. Appl., 21 (2016), 1-19.  doi: 10.3390/mca21010003. [43] B. L. Wang and K. F. Wang, Vibration analysis of embedded nanotubes using nonlocal continuum theory, Composites Part B Eng., 47 (2013), 96-101.  doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2012.10.043. [44] M. H. Yas and N. Samadi, Free vibrations and buckling analysis of carbon nanotube-reinforced composite Timoshenko beams on elastic foundation, Int. J. Press Vessels Piping, 98 (2012), 119-128.  doi: 10.1016/j.ijpvp.2012.07.012. [45] X. Zhang and L. Zhou, Melnikovs method for chaos of the nanoplate postulating nonlinear foundation, Appl. Math. Model., 61 (2018), 744-749.  doi: 10.1016/j.apm.2018.05.003.
Boundary conditions for different beam supports. (a) Simple-simple case and (b) clamped-clamped case.
First three vibration mode shapes for the simple-simple case boundary condition.
First three vibration modes shapes for the clamped-clamped case boundary condition.
Criticals curves separting the chaotic and non-chaotic regions.
Criticals surfaces separating the chaotic and non-chaotic regions.
Critical curve separating the chaotic and non-chaotic regions.
Regular motion when $f = 80$: (a) the phase portrait (b) the Poincare section for the initial conditions $(q_0,p_0) = (0.1,0.1)$.
Regular motion when $f = 80$: (c) the waveform $(t, q(t))$ (d)the waveform $(t, p(t))$ for the initial conditions $(q_0,p_0) = (0.1,0.1)$.
Chaotic motion when $f = 400$: (a) the phase portrait (b) the Poincare section for the initial conditions $(q_0,p_0) = (0.1,0.1)$.
Chaotic motion when $f = 400$: (c) the waveform $(t, q(t))$ (d)the waveform $(t, p(t))$ for the initial conditions $(q_0,p_0) = (0.1,0.1)$.
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