2012, 19: 120-130. doi: 10.3934/era.2012.19.120

Locally decodable codes and the failure of cotype for projective tensor products

1. 

Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI), Science Park 123, 1098 SJ Amsterdam, Netherlands

2. 

Courant Institute, New York University, 251 Mercer Street, New York NY 10012, United States

3. 

École normale supérieure, Département d'informatique, 45 rue d'Ulm, Paris, France

Received  August 2012 Revised  October 2012 Published  November 2012

It is shown that for every $p\in (1,\infty)$ there exists a Banach space $X$ of finite cotype such that the projective tensor product $l_p\hat\otimes X$ fails to have finite cotype. More generally, if $p_1,p_2,p_3\in (1,\infty)$ satisfy $\frac{1}{p_1}+\frac{1}{p_2}+\frac{1}{p_3}\le 1$ then $l_{p_1}\hat\otimes l_{p_2} \hat\otimes l_{p_3}$ does not have finite cotype. This is proved via a connection to the theory of locally decodable codes.
Citation: Jop Briët, Assaf Naor, Oded Regev. Locally decodable codes and the failure of cotype for projective tensor products. Electronic Research Announcements, 2012, 19: 120-130. doi: 10.3934/era.2012.19.120
References:
[1]

F. Albiac and N. J. Kalton, "Topics in Banach space theory,", 233 of Graduate Texts in Mathematics, 233 (2006).   Google Scholar

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A. Arias and J. D. Farmer, On the structure of tensor products of $l_p$-spaces,, Pacific J. Math., 175 (1996), 13.   Google Scholar

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J. Bourgain, On martingales transforms in finite-dimensional lattices with an appendix on the $K$-convexity constant,, Math. Nachr., 119 (1984), 41.  doi: 10.1002/mana.19841190104.  Google Scholar

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J. Bourgain and G. Pisier, A construction of $\mathcal L_{\infty }$-spaces and related Banach spaces,, Bol. Soc. Brasil. Mat., 14 (1983), 109.   Google Scholar

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Q. Bu, Observations about the projective tensor product of Banach spaces. II. $L^p(0,1)\hat\otimes X,\ 1,, Quaest. Math., 25 (2002), 209.  doi: 10.2989/16073600209486010.  Google Scholar

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Q. Bu and J. Diestel, Observations about the projective tensor product of Banach spaces. I. $l^p\hat\otimesX,\ 1,, Quaest. Math., 24 (2001), 519.  doi: 10.1080/16073606.2001.9639238.  Google Scholar

[10]

Q. Bu and P. N. Dowling, Observations about the projective tensor product of Banach spaces. III. $L^p[0,1]\hat\otimes X,\ 1,, Quaest. Math., 25 (2002), 303.  doi: 10.2989/16073600209486017.  Google Scholar

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J. Diestel, J. Fourie and J. Swart, The projective tensor product. I,, in, 321 (2003), 37.   Google Scholar

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J. Diestel, J. H. Fourie and J. Swart, "The Metric Theory of Tensor Products,", American Mathematical Society, (2008).   Google Scholar

[13]

K. Efremenko, 3-query locally decodable codes of subexponential length,, in, (2009), 39.   Google Scholar

[14]

V. Grolmusz, Superpolynomial size set-systems with restricted intersections mod 6 and explicit Ramsey graphs,, Combinatorica, 20 (2000), 71.  doi: 10.1007/s004930070032.  Google Scholar

[15]

A. Grothendieck, Résumé de la théorie métrique des produits tensoriels topologiques,, Bol. Soc. Mat. São Paulo, 8 (1953), 1.   Google Scholar

[16]

J. Katz and L. Trevisan, On the efficiency of local decoding procedures for error-correcting codes,, in, (2000), 80.   Google Scholar

[17]

I. Kerenidis and R. de Wolf, Exponential lower bound for 2-query locally decodable codes via a quantum argument,, J. Comput. System Sci., 69 (2004), 395.  doi: 10.1016/j.jcss.2004.04.007.  Google Scholar

[18]

D. R. Lewis, Duals of tensor products,, in, 604 (1977), 57.   Google Scholar

[19]

B. Maurey and G. Pisier, Séries de variables aléatoires vectorielles indépendantes et propriétés géométriques des espaces de Banach,, Studia Math., 58 (1976), 45.   Google Scholar

[20]

G. Pisier, Un théorème sur les opérateurs linéaires entre espaces de Banach qui se factorisent par un espace de Hilbert,, Ann. Sci., 13 (1980), 23.   Google Scholar

[21]

G. Pisier, Counterexamples to a conjecture of Grothendieck,, Acta. Math., 151 (1983), 181.   Google Scholar

[22]

G. Pisier, Factorization of operator valued analytic functions,, Adv. Math., 93 (1992), 61.   Google Scholar

[23]

G. Pisier, Random series of trace class operators,, in, (1992), 29.   Google Scholar

[24]

R. A. Ryan, "Introduction to Tensor Products of Banach Spaces,", Springer Monographs in Mathematics. Springer-Verlag London Ltd., (2002).   Google Scholar

[25]

N. Tomczak-Jaegermann, The moduli of smoothness and convexity and the Rademacher averages of trace classes $S_p(1\leq p<\infty )$,, Studia Math., 50 (1974), 163.   Google Scholar

[26]

L. Trevisan, Some applications of coding theory in computational complexity,, in, 13 (2004), 347.   Google Scholar

[27]

D. P. Woodruff, New lower bounds for general locally decodable codes,, Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity (ECCC), 14 (2007).   Google Scholar

[28]

S. Yekhanin, Towards 3-query locally decodable codes of subexponential length,, J. ACM, 55 (2008).   Google Scholar

[29]

S. Yekhanin, Locally decodable codes,, Found. Trends Theor. Comput. Sci., 7 (2011), 1.   Google Scholar

show all references

References:
[1]

F. Albiac and N. J. Kalton, "Topics in Banach space theory,", 233 of Graduate Texts in Mathematics, 233 (2006).   Google Scholar

[2]

A. Arias and J. D. Farmer, On the structure of tensor products of $l_p$-spaces,, Pacific J. Math., 175 (1996), 13.   Google Scholar

[3]

A. Beimel, Y. Ishai, E. Kushilevitz and I. Orlov, Share conversion and private information retrieval,, in, (2012), 258.   Google Scholar

[4]

A. Ben-Aroya, O. Regev and R. de Wolf, A hypercontractive inequality for matrix-valued functions with applications to quantum computing and LDCs,, in, (2008), 477.   Google Scholar

[5]

J. Bourgain, New Banach space properties of the disc algebra and $H^{\infty}$,, Acta Math., 152 (1984), 1.   Google Scholar

[6]

J. Bourgain, On martingales transforms in finite-dimensional lattices with an appendix on the $K$-convexity constant,, Math. Nachr., 119 (1984), 41.  doi: 10.1002/mana.19841190104.  Google Scholar

[7]

J. Bourgain and G. Pisier, A construction of $\mathcal L_{\infty }$-spaces and related Banach spaces,, Bol. Soc. Brasil. Mat., 14 (1983), 109.   Google Scholar

[8]

Q. Bu, Observations about the projective tensor product of Banach spaces. II. $L^p(0,1)\hat\otimes X,\ 1,, Quaest. Math., 25 (2002), 209.  doi: 10.2989/16073600209486010.  Google Scholar

[9]

Q. Bu and J. Diestel, Observations about the projective tensor product of Banach spaces. I. $l^p\hat\otimesX,\ 1,, Quaest. Math., 24 (2001), 519.  doi: 10.1080/16073606.2001.9639238.  Google Scholar

[10]

Q. Bu and P. N. Dowling, Observations about the projective tensor product of Banach spaces. III. $L^p[0,1]\hat\otimes X,\ 1,, Quaest. Math., 25 (2002), 303.  doi: 10.2989/16073600209486017.  Google Scholar

[11]

J. Diestel, J. Fourie and J. Swart, The projective tensor product. I,, in, 321 (2003), 37.   Google Scholar

[12]

J. Diestel, J. H. Fourie and J. Swart, "The Metric Theory of Tensor Products,", American Mathematical Society, (2008).   Google Scholar

[13]

K. Efremenko, 3-query locally decodable codes of subexponential length,, in, (2009), 39.   Google Scholar

[14]

V. Grolmusz, Superpolynomial size set-systems with restricted intersections mod 6 and explicit Ramsey graphs,, Combinatorica, 20 (2000), 71.  doi: 10.1007/s004930070032.  Google Scholar

[15]

A. Grothendieck, Résumé de la théorie métrique des produits tensoriels topologiques,, Bol. Soc. Mat. São Paulo, 8 (1953), 1.   Google Scholar

[16]

J. Katz and L. Trevisan, On the efficiency of local decoding procedures for error-correcting codes,, in, (2000), 80.   Google Scholar

[17]

I. Kerenidis and R. de Wolf, Exponential lower bound for 2-query locally decodable codes via a quantum argument,, J. Comput. System Sci., 69 (2004), 395.  doi: 10.1016/j.jcss.2004.04.007.  Google Scholar

[18]

D. R. Lewis, Duals of tensor products,, in, 604 (1977), 57.   Google Scholar

[19]

B. Maurey and G. Pisier, Séries de variables aléatoires vectorielles indépendantes et propriétés géométriques des espaces de Banach,, Studia Math., 58 (1976), 45.   Google Scholar

[20]

G. Pisier, Un théorème sur les opérateurs linéaires entre espaces de Banach qui se factorisent par un espace de Hilbert,, Ann. Sci., 13 (1980), 23.   Google Scholar

[21]

G. Pisier, Counterexamples to a conjecture of Grothendieck,, Acta. Math., 151 (1983), 181.   Google Scholar

[22]

G. Pisier, Factorization of operator valued analytic functions,, Adv. Math., 93 (1992), 61.   Google Scholar

[23]

G. Pisier, Random series of trace class operators,, in, (1992), 29.   Google Scholar

[24]

R. A. Ryan, "Introduction to Tensor Products of Banach Spaces,", Springer Monographs in Mathematics. Springer-Verlag London Ltd., (2002).   Google Scholar

[25]

N. Tomczak-Jaegermann, The moduli of smoothness and convexity and the Rademacher averages of trace classes $S_p(1\leq p<\infty )$,, Studia Math., 50 (1974), 163.   Google Scholar

[26]

L. Trevisan, Some applications of coding theory in computational complexity,, in, 13 (2004), 347.   Google Scholar

[27]

D. P. Woodruff, New lower bounds for general locally decodable codes,, Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity (ECCC), 14 (2007).   Google Scholar

[28]

S. Yekhanin, Towards 3-query locally decodable codes of subexponential length,, J. ACM, 55 (2008).   Google Scholar

[29]

S. Yekhanin, Locally decodable codes,, Found. Trends Theor. Comput. Sci., 7 (2011), 1.   Google Scholar

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