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Distributed energy resources flexibility as volumetric options on electricity

  • *Corresponding author: Yuanye Ma

    *Corresponding author: Yuanye Ma

The authors are supported by [U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Research Projects Agency–Energy Award No. DE-AR001274 and Work Authorization No. 19/CJ000/07/08]

Abstract Full Text(HTML) Figure(4) / Table(4) Related Papers Cited by
  • The goal of the paper is twofold: a) following the identification of the merits of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) by FERC 2222 for the flexibility they bring to the grid, we recognize water heaters and thermostats as mini-batteries and introduce volumetric/swing options that the Aggregator can sell by shifting consumers' consumption while rewarding them; b) We propose to address the pricing complexity of these volumetric options - which are in our setting very general in terms of number of exercises and quantities constraints - by a novel approach that combines Monte Carlo simulations and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN).

    Mathematics Subject Classification: 68T07, 68T09, 60H15, 90C39.


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  • Figure 1.  Histogram of control durations in the PE dataset

    Figure 2.  Examples of average consumption in the PE dataset

    Figure 3.  Ground truth versus fitted value of the electricity price $ S_t $

    Figure 4.  Five simualted electricity price paths for 10/01/2021 from 12AM to 5PM

    Table 1.  Summary of control types in the Packetized Energy dataset

    Number of Days with Control Control Time Range Control Duration
    119 1:30pm to 6:15pm 3 to 4.75 hours
    118 5pm to 9:15pm 2 to 4 hours
    106 5pm to 8:15pm 0.25 to 1 hour
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV

    Table 2.  Summary of Delta obtained from the RNN

    8AM 9AM 10AM 11AM 12PM 1PM 2PM 3PM 4PM 5PM
    $ \Delta_t $ 5.10 1.12 0.77 0.82 0.32 1.81 15.87 1640.6 1057.7 1378.0
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV

    Table 3.  Linearity scaling of the volumetric option in the EcoBee dataset

    Scale $ c $ 100 10 4 2 1 0.5 0.25 0.1 0.01
    by $ c^{\prime} $ 100 9.99 3.99 1.99 1 0.501 0.244 0.0992 0.0100
    $ c/c^{\prime} $ 1 0.999 0.9975 0.995 1 1.002 0.976 0.992 1
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV

    Table 4.  Linearity scaling of the volumetric option in the PE dataset

    Scale $ c $ 100 10 4 2 1 0.5 0.25 0.1 0.01
    by $ c^{\prime} $ 99.7 9.98 4.04 2.01 1 0.505 0.251 0.0993 0.00999
    $ c/c^{\prime} $ 0.997 0.998 1.01 1.005 1 1.01 1.004 0.993 0.999
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV
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