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Generative imaging and image processing via generative encoder

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  • This paper introduces a novel generative encoder (GE) framework for generative imaging and image processing tasks like image reconstruction, compression, denoising, inpainting, deblurring, and super-resolution. GE unifies the generative capacity of GANs and the stability of AEs in an optimization framework instead of stacking GANs and AEs into a single network or combining their loss functions as in existing literature. GE provides a novel approach to visualizing relationships between latent spaces and the data space. The GE framework is made up of a pre-training phase and a solving phase. In the former, a GAN with generator $ G $ capturing the data distribution of a given image set, and an AE network with encoder $ E $ that compresses images following the estimated distribution by $ G $ are trained separately, resulting in two latent representations of the data, denoted as the generative and encoding latent space respectively. In the solving phase, given noisy image $ x = \mathcal{P}(x^*) $, where $ x^* $ is the target unknown image, $ \mathcal{P} $ is an operator adding an addictive, or multiplicative, or convolutional noise, or equivalently given such an image $ x $ in the compressed domain, i.e., given $ m = E(x) $, the two latent spaces are unified via solving the optimization problem

    $ z^* = \underset{z}{\mathrm{argmin}} \|E(G(z))-m\|_2^2+\lambda\|z\|_2^2 $

    and the image $ x^* $ is recovered in a generative way via $ \hat{x}: = G(z^*)\approx x^* $, where $ \lambda>0 $ is a hyperparameter. The unification of the two spaces allows improved performance against corresponding GAN and AE networks while visualizing interesting properties in each latent space.

    Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary: 68U10; Secondary: 68T07.

    Citation:

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  • Figure 1.  Flow of training process in GE. Step 1 and 2 forms the pre-training phase, while the remaining form the solving phase

    Figure 2.  Reconstruction results on CelebA dataset

    Figure 3.  Reconstruction results on Digital Rock dataset

    Figure 4.  Reconstruction results on LSUN church dataset

    Figure 5.  Denoising results on CelebA dataset

    Figure 6.  Deblurring results on CelebA dataset

    Figure 7.  Super-resolution results on CelebA dataset

    Figure 8.  Inpainting results on CelebA dataset

    Figure 9.  Plot of log of average MSE based on number of iterations in the solving phase

    Figure 10.  Comparison of image reconstruction of detail region (red box) for original image (left). In order of comparison, from left to right, we have Original, GE, invertGAN, ConvAE

    Figure 11.  Comparison of image reconstruction of detail region (red box) for original image (left). In order of comparison, from top to bottom, we have Original, GE, invertGAN, ConvAE

    Figure 12.  Additional pore sample result on Digital Rock dataset

    Figure 13.  Missing spectacles sample results on CelebA dataset

    Figure 14.  Reconstruction results for $ 64\times 64\times 3 $ images in CelebA with GE using BEGAN instead of pGAN

    Table 1.  Structure of $ E $. The decoder $ DC $ is a mirror of $ E $ using conv_transpose and upsample

    layer type layer
    conv2d $ k=[3,3,3,f],s=[1,1],a=ReLU $
    maxpool2d $ k=[1,2,2,1],s=[2,2] $
    conv2d $ k=[3,3,f,2*f],s=[1,1],a=ReLU $
    maxpool2d $ k=[1,2,2,1],s=[2,2] $
    conv2d $ k=[3,3,2*f,4*f],s=[1,1],a=ReLU $
    maxpool2d $ k=[1,2,2,1],s=[2,2] $
    conv2d $ k=[3,3,4*f,8*f],s=[1,1],a=ReLU $
    maxpool2d $ k=[1,2,2,1],s=[2,2] $
    conv2d $ k=[3,3,8*f,16*f],s=[1,1],a=ReLU $
    maxpool2d $ k=[1,2,2,1],s=[2,2] $
    conv2d $ k=[3,3,16*f,32*f],s=[1,1],a=ReLU $
    maxpool2d $ k=[1,2,2,1],s=[2,2] $
    fullyconnected $ h=256 $
     | Show Table
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    Table 2.  Quantitative results comparing models for CelebA. Additionally, some FID scores reported by recent GAN papers that used CelebA $ 128\times128\times3 $ images are also presented for comparison, labelled with *

    Model MSE SSIM FID
    CRGAN* 16.97
    SSGAN* 24.36
    Our pGAN 22.13
    ConvAE 0.03386 0.6823$ \pm $0.051 87.71
    AEGAN 0.03317 0.6907$ \pm $0.050 34.53
    invertGAN 0.03529 0.7203$ \pm $0.038 19.19
    GE 0.03262 0.7329$ \pm $0.025 17.42
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV

    Table 3.  Quantitative results comparing models for digital rocks. The number in brackets show the size of the latent vector in pGAN that the model is trained on. Models with same latent sizes are solved with the same pGAN weights. The same AE is used for all models

    Model MSE PSNR
    ConvAE 0.009271 20.32
    invertGAN (512) 0.008185 20.86
    GE (512) 0.007470 21.26
    GE (256) 0.007741 21.11
    GE (128) 0.007839 21.05
    GE (64) 0.008499 20.70
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV

    Table 4.  Results of invertGAN, GE on spectacles. T refers to samples which produced spectacles, F refers to samples which did not. Remaining are invalid reconstructions

    InvertGAN, F InvertGAN, T
    GE, F 289 32
    GE, T 157 469
     | Show Table
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