# American Institute of Mathematical Sciences

July  2014, 10(3): 717-741. doi: 10.3934/jimo.2014.10.717

## Globally convergent homotopy method for designing piecewise linear deterministic contractual function

 1 School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024, China 2 School of Mathematical Science, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 3 Faculty of Management and Economics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning, 116024, China

Received  November 2012 Revised  March 2013 Published  November 2013

In this paper, to design a piecewise linear contractual function, we consider to solve the single-level nonconvex programming with integral operator which is equivalent to the principal-agent bilevel programming model with continuous distribution. A modified constraint shifting homotopy method for solving the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker system of the discrete nonconvex programming is proposed and the global convergence from any initial point in shifted feasible set is proven under some mild conditions. A simple homotopy path tracing algorithm is given and is implemented in Matlab. For some typical risk averse utility functions and the typical distribution functions which simultaneously satisfy monotone likelihood ratio condition and convexity of the distribution function condition, some numerical tests to design the piecewise linear contract are done by our homotopy method as well as by using fmincon in Matlab, LOQO and MINOS and, as a comparison, the piecewise constant contracts are also designed by solving the single-level nonconvex programming which is equivalent to the principal-agent bilevel programming model with corresponding discrete distributions. Numerical tests show that: to design a piecewise linear contract, which is much better than a piecewise constant contract, it needs only to solve a much lower dimensional optimization problem and hence needs much less computing time. Numerical experiences also show that the modified constraint shifting homotopy method is feasible and robust.
Citation: Zhichuan Zhu, Bo Yu, Li Yang. Globally convergent homotopy method for designing piecewise linear deterministic contractual function. Journal of Industrial and Management Optimization, 2014, 10 (3) : 717-741. doi: 10.3934/jimo.2014.10.717
##### References:
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##### References:
 [1] J. A. Mirrlees, The theory of moral hazard and unobservable behavior: Part I, Mimeo, 1975, Nuffild College, Oxford. Reprinted in Rev. Econ. Stud., 66 (1999), 3-21. [2] J. A. Mirrlees, The Implication of Moral Hazard for Optimal Insurance, Seminar Given at Conference Held in Honor of Karl Borch. Mimeo, 1979, Bergen, Norway. [3] W. P. Rogerson, The first-order approach to principal-agent problems, Economica, 53 (1985), 1357-1367. doi: 10.2307/1913212. [4] M. LiCalzi and S. Spaeter, Distributions for the first-order approach to principal-agent problems, Economic Theory, 21 (2003), 167-173. doi: 10.1007/s00199-001-0250-y. [5] S. Shao and Q. Xu, Distributions for the validity of the first-order approach to principal-agent problems, Journal of Fudan University, 48 (2009), 277-280. [6] S. J. Grossman and O. D. Hart, An Analysis of the principal-agent problem, Econometrica, 51 (1983), 7-45. doi: 10.2307/1912246. [7] I. Jewitt, Justifying the first-order approach to principal-agent problems, Economica, 56 (1988), 1177-1190. doi: 10.2307/1911363. [8] B. Sinclair-Desgagné, The first-order approach to multi-signal principal-agent problems, Econometrica, 62 (1994), 459-465. doi: 10.2307/2951619. [9] E. Alvi, First-order approach to principal-agent problems: A generalization, The Geneva Risk and Insurance Review, 22 (1997), 59-65. doi: 10.1023/A:1008663531322. [10] John R. Conlon, Two new conditions supporting the first-order approach to multisignal principal-agent problems, Econometrica, 77 (2009), 249-278. doi: 10.3982/ECTA6688. [11] S. Koehne, The first-order approach to moral hazard problems with hidden saving, Working Paper, (2010), University of Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.1444780. [12] R. B. Myerson, Optimal coordination mechanisms in generalized principal-agent problems, J. Math. Econ., 10 (1982), 67-81. doi: 10.1016/0304-4068(82)90006-4. [13] E. S. Prescott, A primer on Moral-Hazard models, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond Quanterly Review, 85 (1999), 47-77. [14] E. S. Prescott, Computing solutions to moral-hazard programs using the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition algorithm, J. Econ. Dynam. Control, 28 (2004), 777-800. doi: 10.1016/S0165-1889(03)00053-8. [15] C. L. Su and K. L. Judd, Computation of moral-hazard problems, Working Paper, (2007), CMS-EMS, Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, Evanston, llinois, USA. [16] R. B. Kellogg, T. Y. Li and J. A. Yorke, A constructive proof of the Brouwer fixed-point theorem and computational results, SIAM J. Num. Anal., 13 (1976), 473-483. doi: 10.1137/0713041. [17] S. Smale, A convergent process of price adjustment and global newton methods, J. Math. Econom., 3 (1976), 107-120. doi: 10.1016/0304-4068(76)90019-7. [18] S. N. Chow, J. Mallet-Paret and J. A. Yorke, Finding zeros of maps: Homotopy methods that are constructive with probability one, Math. Comput., 32 (1978), 887-899. doi: 10.1090/S0025-5718-1978-0492046-9. [19] G. C. Feng and B. Yu, Combined homotopy interior point method for nonlinear programming problems, Advances in Numerical Mathematics; Proceeding of the second Japan-China Seminar on Numerical Mathematics (Eds. H. Fujita and M. Yamaguti), Tokyo, 1994, 9-16, Lecture Notes in Numerical and Applied Analysis, 14, Kinokuniya, Tokyo, Japan, 1995. [20] G. C. Feng, Z. H. Lin and B. Yu, Existence of an interior pathway to a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker point of a nonconvex programming problem, Nonlinear Anal., 32 (1998), 761-768. doi: 10.1016/S0362-546X(97)00516-6. [21] Y. F. Shang and B. Yu, Boundary moving combined homotopy method for nonconvex nonlinear programming and its convergence, (Chinese), J. Jilin Univ. Sci., 44 (2006), 357-361. [22] Z. H. Lin, Y. Li and B. Yu, A combined homotopy interior point method for general nonlinear programming problems, Appl. Math. Comput., 80 (1996), 209-224. doi: 10.1016/0096-3003(95)00295-2. [23] L. Yang, B. Yu and Q. Xu, A constraint shifting homotopy method for general nonlinear programming, Optim., 2012. doi: 10.1080/02331934.2012.668189. [24] L. Qi and Z. Wei, On the constant positive linear dependence condition and its application to SQP methods, SIAM J. Optim., 10 (2000), 963-981. [25] L. T. Watson, S. C. Billups and A. P. Morgan, Algorithm 652 hompack: A suite of codes for globally convergent homotopy algorithms, ACM Trans. Math. Softw., 13 (1987), 281-310. doi: 10.1145/29380.214343. [26] E. L. Allgower and K. Georg, Introduction to Numerical Continuation Methods, 2nd edition, SIAM Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, America, 2003. doi: 10.1137/1.9780898719154.
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