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An enhanced Genetic Algorithm with an innovative encoding strategy for flexible job-shop scheduling with operation and processing flexibility

  • * Corresponding author: Sardar M. N. Islam

    * Corresponding author: Sardar M. N. Islam 

Xuewen Huang is supported by the National Science and Technology Plan of China under Grant No. 2015BAF09B01 and the China Scholarship under Grant No. 201606060170

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  • This paper considers the Flexible Job-shop Scheduling Problem with Operation and Processing flexibility (FJSP-OP) with the objective of minimizing the makespan. A Genetic Algorithm based approach is presented to solve the FJSP-OP. For the performance improvement, a new and concise Four-Tuple Scheme (FTS) is proposed for modeling a job with operation and processing flexibility. Then, with the FTS, an enhanced Genetic Algorithm employing a more efficient encoding strategy is developed. The use of this encoding strategy ensures that the classic genetic operators can be adopted to the utmost extent without generating infeasible offspring. Experiments have validated the proposed approach, and the results have shown the effectiveness and high performance of the proposed approach.

    Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary: 90B35, 90C59; Secondary: 68M20.

    Citation:

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  • Figure 1.  Alternative process plans networks

    Figure 2.  An illustrative chromosome applying the hierarchical encoding approach

    Figure 3.  Illustrative chromosomes applying the integrated encoding approach

    Figure 4.  Algorithm GENERATE-PROCESS-PLAN

    Figure 5.  A chromosome of the FJSP-OP

    Figure 6.  Algorithm GENERATE-SCHEDULING

    Figure 7.  Decoding a chromosome

    Figure 8.  Crossover operations

    Figure 9.  Mutation operations

    Figure 10.  The Gantt chart of Experiment 1

    Figure 11.  The Gantt chart of Experiment 3

    Figure 12.  The Gantt chart of Experiment 4

    Figure 13.  The Gantt chart of problem mk06 in Experiment 5

    Figure 14.  The Gantt chart of Experiment 6(b)

    Figure 15.  Performance curve of Experiment 4

    Figure A1.  The data of Experiment 3

    Table 1.  Comparison of results for Experiment 1

    Solution approach EA Modified GA PBHA GA-OP
    Makespan 16 14 14 14
    Mean CPU time (ms) N/A N/A N/A 191
    1 N/A means the result was not given by the author.
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    Table 2.  Parameters and comparison of results on Experiment 3

    Solution approach ALO Modified GA GA-OP
    Parameters N/A $ PopSize=500 $ $ PopSize=50 $
    $ P_c=0.8,P_m=0.1,IterNo=100 $
    Makespan 161 162 145
    Mean CPU time (ms) N/A N/A 309
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    Table 3.  Parameters and comparison of results on Experiment 4

    Solution approach ALGA GA-OP
    Parameters $ PopSize=400 $ $ PopSize=200 $
    $ P_c=0.8 $, $ P_m=0.1 $, $ IterNo=100 $
    Makespan 188 181
    Mean CPU time (ms) N/A 2,907
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    Table 4.  Comparison of results for Experiment 5

    Problem $ n \times m $ TABC HGTS MA2 HA PSO VNSGA GA-OP
    mk01 10x6 40 40 40 40 41 40 40
    mk02 10x6 26 26 26 26 26 26 26
    mk03 15x8 204 204 204 204 207 204 204
    mk04 15x8 60 60 60 60 65 60 60
    mk05 15x4 173 172 172 172 171 173 172
    mk06 10x15 60 57 59 57 61 58 57
    mk07 20x5 139 139 139 139 173 144 139
    mk08 20x10 523 523 523 523 523 523 523
    mk09 20x10 307 307 307 307 307 307 307
    mk10 20x15 202 198 202 197 312 198 198
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    Table 5.  The experimental results (computational time in terms of seconds) of experiment 5

    Problem n x m TABC HGTS MA2 HA PSO VNSGA GA-OP
    mk01 10x6 3.36 5 20.16 0.06 N/A N/A 0.27
    mk02 10x6 3.72 15 28.21 0.59 N/A N/A 3.75
    mk03 15x8 1.56 2 53.76 0.16 N/A N/A 0.12
    mk04 15x8 66.58 10 30.53 0.49 N/A N/A 3.41
    mk05 15x4 78.45 18 36.36 4.57 N/A N/A 6.23
    mk06 10x15 173.98 63 80.61 53.82 N/A N/A 65.14
    mk07 20x5 66.19 33 37.74 20.01 N/A N/A 25.4
    mk08 20x10 2.15 3 77.71 0.02 N/A N/A 0.2
    mk09 20x10 304.43 24 75.23 0.86 N/A N/A 4.1
    mk10 20x15 418.19 104 90.75 33.21 N/A N/A 73.12
     | Show Table
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    Table 6.  Comparison of results on Experiment 6

    Solution approach Experiment 6(a) Experiment 6(b)
    ACO GA-OP Enhanced ACO GA-OP
    Makespan 589 522 484 482
    Mean CPU time (ms) 128,700 12,056 120534 12063
     | Show Table
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    Table A1.  Alternative machines of each operation performed for each job

    Operation Job
    1 2 3 4 5 6
    1 2, 4 2, 4 3, 5 3, 5 2, 4 2, 4
    2 7, 8 7, 8 4, 6 4, 6 3, 5 3, 5
    3 1, 2 1, 2 2, 3, 5 2, 3, 5 1, 2, 6 1, 2, 6
    4 8, 6 8, 6 6, 7 6, 7 6, 8 6, 8
    5 3, 5 3, 5 1, 8 1, 8 1, 7 1, 7
    6 1, 2, 4 1, 2, 4 1, 4 1, 4 1, 3 1, 3
    7 5, 6 5, 6 6, 7 6, 7 6, 7 6, 7
    8 1, 7 1, 7 5, 8 5, 8 5, 8 5, 8
    9 3, 8 3, 8 4, 2 4, 2 4, 3 4, 3
     | Show Table
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    Table A2.  Processing times on the alternative machines of each operation

    Operation Job
    1 2 3 4 5 6
    1 18, 22 18, 22 12, 15 12, 15 18, 22 18, 22
    2 39, 36 39, 36 24, 23 24, 23 12, 15 12, 15
    3 11, 10 37, 39 30, 31, 29 30, 31, 29 50, 52, 54 50, 52, 54
    4 31, 34 20, 21 21, 22 21, 22 19, 21 53, 51
    5 21, 23 21, 23 32, 30 32, 30 32, 31 22, 24
    6 10, 12, 15 10, 12, 15 22, 25 22, 25 22, 25 22, 25
    7 32, 30 36, 38 24, 22 42, 44 24, 22 24, 22
    8 45, 44 45, 44 20, 19 41, 43 20, 18 20, 18
    9 26, 24 26, 24 27, 22 27, 22 27, 22 27, 22
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV

    Table A3.  Transportation times between the machines

    Machine number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
    1 0 3 7 10 3 5 8 12
    2 3 0 4 7 5 3 5 8
    3 7 4 0 3 8 5 3 5
    4 10 7 3 0 10 8 5 3
    5 3 5 8 10 0 3 7 10
    6 5 3 5 8 3 0 4 7
    7 8 5 3 5 7 4 0 3
    8 12 8 5 3 10 7 3 0
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV
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