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Maxillofacial surgical simulation system with haptic feedback

  • * Corresponding author: Ling He

    * Corresponding author: Ling He 
This research was partially supported by research grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant: No.61571314)
Abstract Full Text(HTML) Figure(7) / Table(2) Related Papers Cited by
  • Due to the complexity of the maxillofacial surgery, the novice should be sufficiently trained before one is qualified to carry on the surgery. To reduce the training costs and improve the training efficiency, a virtual mandible surgical system with haptic feedback is proposed. This surgical simulation system offers users the haptic feedback while simulating maxillofacial surgery. An integrated model is introduced to optimize the system simulation process, which includes force output to a six-degree-of-freedom haptic device. Based on the anatomy structure of the bone tissue, a two-layer mechanism model is designed to balance the requirement of real-time response and the force feedback accuracy. Collision detection, force rendering, and grinding function are studied to simulate some essential operations: open reduction, osteotomy, and palate fixation. The proposed simulation platform can assist in the training and planning of these oral and maxillofacial surgeries. The fast response feature enables surgeons to design a patient-specific guide plate in real-time. Ten stomatology surgeons evaluated this surgical simulation system from the following four indexes: the level of immersion, user-friendliness, stability, and the effect of surgical training. The evaluation score is eight out of ten.

    Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary: 68Q01; Secondary: 68Q15.


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  • Figure 1.  The architecture of the virtual surgery system

    Figure 2.  Interaction between the two engines and the system

    Figure 3.  Interaction between the input force and the system

    Figure 4.  Simulation of the virtual surgical system for open reduction

    Figure 5.  Simulation of the virtual surgical system for grinding and design of fixing plate

    Figure 6.  Visual and haptic authenticity

    Figure 7.  Evaluation of the system

    Table 1.  Performance of virtual surgical system without griding function

    Points Lines of tool Points of bone Lines of bone Triangles of bone Draw frame(FPS)
    35 34 23175 69454 46280 72.2
    35 34 17728 53190 35460 145.8
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV

    Table 2.  Performance of virtual surgical system with grinding function

    Points Lines of tool Points of bone Lines of bone Triangles of bone Draw frame(FPS)
    35 34 23175 69454 46280 No response
    35 34 535 1526 4994 16.6
    35 34 535 1526 2996 30.0
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV
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