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doi: 10.3934/jimo.2022043
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Online channel design in the presence of price self-matching: Self-operating or e-marketplace?

School of economics and management, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401, China

*Corresponding author

Received  August 2021 Revised  December 2021 Early access March 2022

Fund Project: The work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 71971076, 72171169, 71371186) and Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province (No:G2019202344)

Many traditional retailers become multi-channel retailers by establishing self-operated online channel or employing e-retailer's e-marketplace, and some multi-channel retailers adopt price self-matching to mitigate intense price competition in multi-channel retailing. Our goal in this research is to examine how the multi-channel retailer's online channel design interacts with its price self-matching strategy in a supply chain including a multi-channel retailer and an e-retailer. Our study demonstrates that adopting price self-matching does not necessarily benefit the multi-channel retailer. Moreover, price self-matching can greatly impact the performance of the multi-channel retailer's online channel design, for example, under some market conditions where the multi-channel retailer can benefit from price self-matching only if it employs the e-retailer's e-marketplace, the multi-channel retailer should design online channel according to the e-marketplace's commission rate; but under other market conditions, it should always establish self-operated online channel. Overall, only the strategy of establishing self-operated online channel and adopting price self-matching and the strategy of employing the e-retailer's e-marketplace and adopting price self-matching can help the two retailers achieve a win-win situation. Furthermore, we show that, interestingly, a more prominent disadvantage of the self-operated online channel's potential demand benefits not only the e-retailer but also the multi-channel retailer.

Citation: Jie Wei, Meijing Chang. Online channel design in the presence of price self-matching: Self-operating or e-marketplace?. Journal of Industrial and Management Optimization, doi: 10.3934/jimo.2022043
References:
[1]

V. AbhishekK. Jerath and Z. J. Zhang, Agency selling or reselling? Channel structures in electronic retailing, Management Science, 62 (2016), 2259-2280.  doi: 10.1287/mnsc.2015.2230.

[2]

A. AryaB. Mittendorf and D. E. M. Sappington, The bright side of supplier encroachment, Marketing Science, 26 (2007), 651-659.  doi: 10.1287/mksc.1070.0280.

[3]

Y. Bakos, The emerging landscape for retail e-commerce, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 15 (2001), 69-80.  doi: 10.2307/2696540.

[4]

S. BasakP. BasuB. Avittathur and S. Sikdar, Manufacturer driven strategic coordination as a response to "showrooming", Decision Support Systems, 133 (2020), 113305.  doi: 10.1016/j.dss.2020.113305.

[5]

H. K. Bhargava and V. Choudhary, Economics of an information intermediary with aggregation benefits, Information Systems Research, 15 (2004), 22-36.  doi: 10.1287/isre.1040.0014.

[6]

K. CaoP. He and Z. Liu, Production and pricing decisions in a dual-channel supply chain under remanufacturing subsidy policy and carbon tax policy, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 71 (2020), 1199-1215.  doi: 10.1080/01605682.2019.1605471.

[7]

J. Chen and B. Chen, When should the offline retailer implement price matching?, European J. Oper. Res., 277 (2019), 996-1009.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2019.03.013.

[8]

X. ChenX. Wang and X. Jiang, The impact of power structure on the retail service supply chain with an O2O mixed channel, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 67 (2016), 294-301.  doi: 10.1057/jors.2015.6.

[9]

W. K. ChiangD. Chhajed and J. D. Hess, Direct marketing, indirect profits: A strategic analysis of dual-channel supply-chain design, Management Science, 49 (2003), 1-20.  doi: 10.1287/mnsc.49.1.1.12749.

[10]

S. C. Choi, Price competition in a channel structure with a common retailer, Marketing Science, 10 (1991), 271-296.  doi: 10.1287/mksc.10.4.271.

[11]

X. GengY. Tan and L. Wei, How add-on pricing interacts with distribution contracts, Production and Operations Management, 27 (2018), 605-623.  doi: 10.2139/ssrn.2880474.

[12]

T. HuangZ. Yin and Y. J. Chen, Managing posterior price matching: The role of customer boundedly rational expectations, Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, 19 (2017), 385-402.  doi: 10.1287/msom.2016.0612.

[13]

J. JiangN. Kumar and B. T. Ratchford, Price-matching guarantees with endogenous consumer search, Marketing Science, 63 (2017), 3489-3513.  doi: 10.1287/mnsc.2016.2513.

[14]

P. KireyevV. Kumar and E. Ofek, Match your own price? Self-matching as a retailer's multichannel pricing strategy, Marketing Science, 36 (2017), 908-930.  doi: 10.1287/mksc.2017.1035.

[15]

Y. KwarkJ. Chen and S. Raghunathan, Platform or wholesale? A strategic tool for online retailers to benefit from third-party information, MIS Quarterly, 41 (2017), 763-785.  doi: 10.25300/MISQ/2017/41.3.05.

[16]

G. LaiL. G. Debo and K. Sycara, Buy now and match later: Impact of posterior price matching on profit with strategic consumers, Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, 12 (2010), 33-55.  doi: 10.1287/msom.1080.0248.

[17]

J. LiL. YiV. Shi and X. Chen, Supplier encroachment strategy in the presence of retail strategic inventory: Centralization or decentralization?, Omega, 98 (2021), 102213.  doi: 10.1016/j.omega.2020.102213.

[18]

K. J. Li and S. Jain, Behavior-based pricing: An analysis of the impact of peerinduced fairness, Management Science, 62 (2016), 2705-2721.  doi: 10.1287/mnsc.2015.2265.

[19]

J. C. LuY. YangS. Y. HanY. C. Tsao and Y. Xin, Coordinated inventory policies for meeting demands from both store and online BOPS channels, Computers & Industrial Engineering, 145 (2020), 106542.  doi: 10.1016/j.cie.2020.106542.

[20]

B. MantinH. Krishnan and T. Dhar, The strategic role of third-party marketplaces in retailing, Production and Operations Management, 23 (2014), 1937-1949.  doi: 10.1111/poms.12203.

[21]

K. Matsui, Optimal bargaining timing of a wholesale price for a manufacturer with a retailer in a dual-channel supply chain, European J. Oper. Res., 287 (2020), 225-236.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2020.05.004.

[22]

E. OfekZ. Katona and M. Sarvary, Bricks-and-clicks: The impact of product returns on the strategies of multi-channel retailers, Marketing Science, 30 (2011), 42-60.  doi: 10.1287/mksc.1100.0588.

[23]

D. A. PhanT. L. H. Vo and A. N. Lai, Supply chain coordination under trade credit and retailer effort, International Journal of Production Research, 57 (2019), 2642-2655.  doi: 10.1080/00207543.2019.1567950.

[24]

J. QinL. RenL. XiaZ. Wang and H. Chang, Pricing strategies for dual-channel supply chains under a trade credit policy, Int. Trans. Oper. Res., 27 (2020), 2469-2508.  doi: 10.1111/itor.12634.

[25]

J. K. RyanD. Sun and X. Zhao, Competition and coordination in online marketplaces, Production and Operations Management, 21 (2012), 997-1014.  doi: 10.1111/j.1937-5956.2012.01332.x.

[26]

A. N. SadighS. K. Chaharsooghi and M. Sheikhmohammady, A game theoretic approach to coordination of pricing, advertising, and inventory decisions in a competitive supply chain, J. Ind. Manag. Optim., 12 (2016), 337-355.  doi: 10.3934/jimo.2016.12.337.

[27]

S. Salop, Practices that credibly facilitate oligopoly coordination, New Developments in the Analysis of Market Structure, 77 (1986), 265-294.  doi: 10.1007/978-1-349-18058-5_9.

[28]

J. Shi and T. J. Xiao, Store assistance and coordination of supply chains facing consumer's return, J. Ind. Manag. Optim., 12 (2016), 991-1007.  doi: 10.3934/jimo.2016.12.991.

[29]

L. TianA. J. VakhariaY. R. Tan and Y. Xu, Marketplace, reseller, or hybrid: Strategic analysis of an emerging e-commerce model, Production and Operations Management, 27 (2018), 1595-1610.  doi: 10.1111/poms.12885.

[30]

P. C. VerhoefP. K. Kannan and J. J. Inman, From multi-channel retailing to omni-channel retailing: Introduction to the special issue on multi-channel retailing, Journal of Retailing, 91 (2015), 174-181.  doi: 10.1016/j.jretai.2015.02.005.

[31]

C. WangM. Leng and L. Liang, Choosing an online retail channel for a manufacturer: Direct sales or consignment, International Journal of Production Economics, 195 (2018), 338-358.  doi: 10.1016/j.ijpe.2017.11.001.

[32]

L. WangH. SongD. Zhang and H. Yang, Pricing decisions for complementary products in a fuzzy dual-channel supply chain, J. Ind. Manag. Optim., 15 (2019), 343-364.  doi: 10.3934/jimo.2018046.

[33]

N. WangT. ZhangX. Zhu and P. Li, Online-offine competitive pricing with reference price effect, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 72 (2021), 642-653. 

[34]

J. WeiJ. Lu and J. Zhao, Interactions of competing manufacturers' leader-follower relationship and sales format on online platforms, European J. Oper. Res., 280 (2020), 508-522.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2019.07.048.

[35]

L. XuJ. Shi and J. Chen, Platform encroachment with price matching: Introducing a self-constructing online platform into the sea-cargo market, Computers & Industrial Engineering, 156 (2021), 107266.  doi: 10.1016/j.cie.2021.107266.

[36]

Y. YanR. Zhao and Z. Liu, Strategic introduction of the marketplace channel under spillovers from online to offine sales, European J. Oper. Res., 267 (2018), 65-77.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2017.11.011.

[37]

Y. YanR. Zhao and T. Xing, Strategic introduction of the marketplace channel under dual upstream disadvantages in sales efficiency and demand information, European J. Oper. Res., 273 (2019), 968-982.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2018.09.022.

[38]

J. Q. YangX. M. ZhangH. Y. Fu and C. Liu, Inventory competition in a dual-channel supply chain with delivery lead time consideration, Appl. Math. Model., 42 (2017), 675-692.  doi: 10.1016/j.apm.2016.10.050.

[39]

J. ZhangQ. Xu and Y. He, Omnichannel retail operations with consumer returns and order cancellation, Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 118 (2018), 308-324.  doi: 10.1016/j.tre.2018.08.006.

[40]

R. ZhangB. Liu and W. Wang, Pricing decisions in a dual channels system with different power structures, Economic Modelling, 29 (2012), 523-533.  doi: 10.1016/j.econmod.2011.08.024.

[41]

S. Zhang and J. Zhang, Agency selling or reselling: E-tailer information sharing with supplier offline entry, European J. Oper. Res., 280 (2020), 134-151.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2019.07.003.

[42]

Z. J. Zhang, Price-matching policy and the principle of minimum differentiation, The Journal of Industrial Economics, 43 (1995), 287-299. 

[43]

B. ZhengN. YuL. Jin and H. Xia, Effects of power structure on manufacturer encroachment in a closed-loop supply chain, Computers & Industrial Engineering, 137 (2019), 106062.  doi: 10.1016/j.cie.2019.106062.

show all references

References:
[1]

V. AbhishekK. Jerath and Z. J. Zhang, Agency selling or reselling? Channel structures in electronic retailing, Management Science, 62 (2016), 2259-2280.  doi: 10.1287/mnsc.2015.2230.

[2]

A. AryaB. Mittendorf and D. E. M. Sappington, The bright side of supplier encroachment, Marketing Science, 26 (2007), 651-659.  doi: 10.1287/mksc.1070.0280.

[3]

Y. Bakos, The emerging landscape for retail e-commerce, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 15 (2001), 69-80.  doi: 10.2307/2696540.

[4]

S. BasakP. BasuB. Avittathur and S. Sikdar, Manufacturer driven strategic coordination as a response to "showrooming", Decision Support Systems, 133 (2020), 113305.  doi: 10.1016/j.dss.2020.113305.

[5]

H. K. Bhargava and V. Choudhary, Economics of an information intermediary with aggregation benefits, Information Systems Research, 15 (2004), 22-36.  doi: 10.1287/isre.1040.0014.

[6]

K. CaoP. He and Z. Liu, Production and pricing decisions in a dual-channel supply chain under remanufacturing subsidy policy and carbon tax policy, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 71 (2020), 1199-1215.  doi: 10.1080/01605682.2019.1605471.

[7]

J. Chen and B. Chen, When should the offline retailer implement price matching?, European J. Oper. Res., 277 (2019), 996-1009.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2019.03.013.

[8]

X. ChenX. Wang and X. Jiang, The impact of power structure on the retail service supply chain with an O2O mixed channel, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 67 (2016), 294-301.  doi: 10.1057/jors.2015.6.

[9]

W. K. ChiangD. Chhajed and J. D. Hess, Direct marketing, indirect profits: A strategic analysis of dual-channel supply-chain design, Management Science, 49 (2003), 1-20.  doi: 10.1287/mnsc.49.1.1.12749.

[10]

S. C. Choi, Price competition in a channel structure with a common retailer, Marketing Science, 10 (1991), 271-296.  doi: 10.1287/mksc.10.4.271.

[11]

X. GengY. Tan and L. Wei, How add-on pricing interacts with distribution contracts, Production and Operations Management, 27 (2018), 605-623.  doi: 10.2139/ssrn.2880474.

[12]

T. HuangZ. Yin and Y. J. Chen, Managing posterior price matching: The role of customer boundedly rational expectations, Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, 19 (2017), 385-402.  doi: 10.1287/msom.2016.0612.

[13]

J. JiangN. Kumar and B. T. Ratchford, Price-matching guarantees with endogenous consumer search, Marketing Science, 63 (2017), 3489-3513.  doi: 10.1287/mnsc.2016.2513.

[14]

P. KireyevV. Kumar and E. Ofek, Match your own price? Self-matching as a retailer's multichannel pricing strategy, Marketing Science, 36 (2017), 908-930.  doi: 10.1287/mksc.2017.1035.

[15]

Y. KwarkJ. Chen and S. Raghunathan, Platform or wholesale? A strategic tool for online retailers to benefit from third-party information, MIS Quarterly, 41 (2017), 763-785.  doi: 10.25300/MISQ/2017/41.3.05.

[16]

G. LaiL. G. Debo and K. Sycara, Buy now and match later: Impact of posterior price matching on profit with strategic consumers, Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, 12 (2010), 33-55.  doi: 10.1287/msom.1080.0248.

[17]

J. LiL. YiV. Shi and X. Chen, Supplier encroachment strategy in the presence of retail strategic inventory: Centralization or decentralization?, Omega, 98 (2021), 102213.  doi: 10.1016/j.omega.2020.102213.

[18]

K. J. Li and S. Jain, Behavior-based pricing: An analysis of the impact of peerinduced fairness, Management Science, 62 (2016), 2705-2721.  doi: 10.1287/mnsc.2015.2265.

[19]

J. C. LuY. YangS. Y. HanY. C. Tsao and Y. Xin, Coordinated inventory policies for meeting demands from both store and online BOPS channels, Computers & Industrial Engineering, 145 (2020), 106542.  doi: 10.1016/j.cie.2020.106542.

[20]

B. MantinH. Krishnan and T. Dhar, The strategic role of third-party marketplaces in retailing, Production and Operations Management, 23 (2014), 1937-1949.  doi: 10.1111/poms.12203.

[21]

K. Matsui, Optimal bargaining timing of a wholesale price for a manufacturer with a retailer in a dual-channel supply chain, European J. Oper. Res., 287 (2020), 225-236.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2020.05.004.

[22]

E. OfekZ. Katona and M. Sarvary, Bricks-and-clicks: The impact of product returns on the strategies of multi-channel retailers, Marketing Science, 30 (2011), 42-60.  doi: 10.1287/mksc.1100.0588.

[23]

D. A. PhanT. L. H. Vo and A. N. Lai, Supply chain coordination under trade credit and retailer effort, International Journal of Production Research, 57 (2019), 2642-2655.  doi: 10.1080/00207543.2019.1567950.

[24]

J. QinL. RenL. XiaZ. Wang and H. Chang, Pricing strategies for dual-channel supply chains under a trade credit policy, Int. Trans. Oper. Res., 27 (2020), 2469-2508.  doi: 10.1111/itor.12634.

[25]

J. K. RyanD. Sun and X. Zhao, Competition and coordination in online marketplaces, Production and Operations Management, 21 (2012), 997-1014.  doi: 10.1111/j.1937-5956.2012.01332.x.

[26]

A. N. SadighS. K. Chaharsooghi and M. Sheikhmohammady, A game theoretic approach to coordination of pricing, advertising, and inventory decisions in a competitive supply chain, J. Ind. Manag. Optim., 12 (2016), 337-355.  doi: 10.3934/jimo.2016.12.337.

[27]

S. Salop, Practices that credibly facilitate oligopoly coordination, New Developments in the Analysis of Market Structure, 77 (1986), 265-294.  doi: 10.1007/978-1-349-18058-5_9.

[28]

J. Shi and T. J. Xiao, Store assistance and coordination of supply chains facing consumer's return, J. Ind. Manag. Optim., 12 (2016), 991-1007.  doi: 10.3934/jimo.2016.12.991.

[29]

L. TianA. J. VakhariaY. R. Tan and Y. Xu, Marketplace, reseller, or hybrid: Strategic analysis of an emerging e-commerce model, Production and Operations Management, 27 (2018), 1595-1610.  doi: 10.1111/poms.12885.

[30]

P. C. VerhoefP. K. Kannan and J. J. Inman, From multi-channel retailing to omni-channel retailing: Introduction to the special issue on multi-channel retailing, Journal of Retailing, 91 (2015), 174-181.  doi: 10.1016/j.jretai.2015.02.005.

[31]

C. WangM. Leng and L. Liang, Choosing an online retail channel for a manufacturer: Direct sales or consignment, International Journal of Production Economics, 195 (2018), 338-358.  doi: 10.1016/j.ijpe.2017.11.001.

[32]

L. WangH. SongD. Zhang and H. Yang, Pricing decisions for complementary products in a fuzzy dual-channel supply chain, J. Ind. Manag. Optim., 15 (2019), 343-364.  doi: 10.3934/jimo.2018046.

[33]

N. WangT. ZhangX. Zhu and P. Li, Online-offine competitive pricing with reference price effect, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 72 (2021), 642-653. 

[34]

J. WeiJ. Lu and J. Zhao, Interactions of competing manufacturers' leader-follower relationship and sales format on online platforms, European J. Oper. Res., 280 (2020), 508-522.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2019.07.048.

[35]

L. XuJ. Shi and J. Chen, Platform encroachment with price matching: Introducing a self-constructing online platform into the sea-cargo market, Computers & Industrial Engineering, 156 (2021), 107266.  doi: 10.1016/j.cie.2021.107266.

[36]

Y. YanR. Zhao and Z. Liu, Strategic introduction of the marketplace channel under spillovers from online to offine sales, European J. Oper. Res., 267 (2018), 65-77.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2017.11.011.

[37]

Y. YanR. Zhao and T. Xing, Strategic introduction of the marketplace channel under dual upstream disadvantages in sales efficiency and demand information, European J. Oper. Res., 273 (2019), 968-982.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2018.09.022.

[38]

J. Q. YangX. M. ZhangH. Y. Fu and C. Liu, Inventory competition in a dual-channel supply chain with delivery lead time consideration, Appl. Math. Model., 42 (2017), 675-692.  doi: 10.1016/j.apm.2016.10.050.

[39]

J. ZhangQ. Xu and Y. He, Omnichannel retail operations with consumer returns and order cancellation, Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 118 (2018), 308-324.  doi: 10.1016/j.tre.2018.08.006.

[40]

R. ZhangB. Liu and W. Wang, Pricing decisions in a dual channels system with different power structures, Economic Modelling, 29 (2012), 523-533.  doi: 10.1016/j.econmod.2011.08.024.

[41]

S. Zhang and J. Zhang, Agency selling or reselling: E-tailer information sharing with supplier offline entry, European J. Oper. Res., 280 (2020), 134-151.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2019.07.003.

[42]

Z. J. Zhang, Price-matching policy and the principle of minimum differentiation, The Journal of Industrial Economics, 43 (1995), 287-299. 

[43]

B. ZhengN. YuL. Jin and H. Xia, Effects of power structure on manufacturer encroachment in a closed-loop supply chain, Computers & Industrial Engineering, 137 (2019), 106062.  doi: 10.1016/j.cie.2019.106062.

Figure 1.  Changes of maximal profits with η
Figure 2.  Changes of maximal profits with f
Figure 3.  Changes of maximal profits with v
Figure 4.  Changes of maximal profits with θ
Figure b1.  Changes of maximal profits with η
Figure b2.  Changes of maximal profits with f
Figure b3.  Changes of maximal profits with v
Figure b4.  Changes of maximal profits with θ
Figure c1.  Changes of maximal profits with η
Figure c2.  Changes of maximal profits with f
Figure c3.  c3. Changes of maximal profits with v
Figure c4.  Changes of maximal profits with θ
Table 1.  Consumers segments and proportions
Information structure
Channel preference Complete Incomplete
Store-only ($ SC $): (1-$ \alpha $)$ \lambda $ ($ SI $): (1-$ \alpha $)(1-$ \lambda $)
Online ($ OC $): $ \alpha\eta $ ($ OI $): $ \alpha $(1-$ \eta $)
Information structure
Channel preference Complete Incomplete
Store-only ($ SC $): (1-$ \alpha $)$ \lambda $ ($ SI $): (1-$ \alpha $)(1-$ \lambda $)
Online ($ OC $): $ \alpha\eta $ ($ OI $): $ \alpha $(1-$ \eta $)
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