• Previous Article
    Time variations in the generation time of an infectious disease: Implications for sampling to appropriately quantify transmission potential
  • MBE Home
  • This Issue
  • Next Article
    An elementary approach to modeling drug resistance in cancer
2010, 7(4): 871-904. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2010.7.871

A two-sex model for the influence of heavy alcohol consumption on the spread of HIV/AIDS

1. 

Department of Mathematics, University of Botswana, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone, Botswana, Botswana

Received  October 2009 Revised  May 2010 Published  October 2010

The HIV/AIDS epidemic, one of the leading public health problems to have affected sub-Sahara Africa, is a multifaceted problem with social, behavioral and biological aspects. In the absence of a cure, behavioral change has been advocated as an intervention strategy for reversing the epidemic. Empirical studies have found heavy alcohol consumption to be a fueling factor for HIV/AIDS infection and progression. Previously [20], we formulated and analyzed a one-sex deterministic model to capture the dynamics of this deadly interaction. But, since alcohol drinking habits, consequent risky sexual practices, alcohol-induced immune suppression, etc., can be different for men and women, the primary objective of our present paper is to construct a two-sex model aimed at shedding light on how both sexes, with varying heavy alcohol consumption trends, contribute differently to the HIV/AIDS spread. Based on numerical simulations, supported by the UNAIDS epidemiological software SPECTRUM and using the available data, our study identifies heavy drinking among men and women to be a major driving force for HIV/AIDS in Botswana and sub-Sahara Africa and quantifies its hazardous outcomes in terms of increased number of active TB cases and economic burden caused by increased need for AntiRetroviral Therapy (ART). Our simulations point to the heavy-drinking habits of men as a major reason for the continuing disproportionate impact of HIV/AIDS on women in sub-Sahara Africa. Our analysis has revealed the possibility of the phenomenon of backward bifurcation. In contrast to the result in some HIV vaccination models [52], backward bifurcation in our model is not removed by replacing the corresponding standard incidence function with a mass action incidence, but is removed by merging the two susceptible classes of the same sex into one, i.e., by ignoring acquisition of, and ongoing recovery from, heavy-drinking habits among the susceptible population.
Citation: Gigi Thomas, Edward M. Lungu. A two-sex model for the influence of heavy alcohol consumption on the spread of HIV/AIDS. Mathematical Biosciences & Engineering, 2010, 7 (4) : 871-904. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2010.7.871
References:
[1]

A. B. Morris and I. P. Albery, Alcohol consumption and HIV risk behaviours: Integrating the theories of alcohol myopia and outcome-expectancies,, Addiction Research and Theory, 9 (2001), 73. doi: doi:10.3109/16066350109141773.

[2]

A. L. Pithey and N. K. Morojele, Literature review on alcohol use and sexual risk behaviour in South Africa,, 2002, (2009).

[3]

A. O. Odejide, Status of drug use/abuse in Africa: A review,, Int. J. Ment. Health Addict., 4 (2006), 87. doi: doi:10.1007/s11469-006-9015-y.

[4]

A. Palepu, N. J. Horton, N. Tibbetts, S. Meli and J. H. Samet, Uptake and adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected people with alcohol and other substance use problems: The impact of substance abuse treatment,, Addiction, 99 (2004), 361. doi: doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2003.00670.x.

[5]

B. C. Leigh, Alcohol and condom use a meta-analysis of event-level studies,, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 29 (2002), 476. doi: doi:10.1097/00007435-200208000-00008.

[6]

B. C. Leigh and R. Stall, Substance use and risky sexual behavior for exposure to HIV: Issues in methodology, interpretation and prevention,, Am. Psychol., 48 (1993), 1035. doi: doi:10.1037/0003-066X.48.10.1035.

[7]

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Frequently asked questions,, available at , ().

[8]

Central Statistics Office, "Botswana AIDS Impact Survey III (BAIS III),", CSO, (2009).

[9]

Central Statistics Office, "Botswana Demographic Survey 2006,", CSO, (2009).

[10]

C. Emslie, H. Lewars, G. D. Batty and K. Hunt, Are there gender differences in levels of heavy, binge and problem drinking? Evidence from three generations in the west of Scotland,, Public Health, 123 (2009), 12. doi: doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2008.06.001.

[11]

C. F. Turner, H. G. Miller and L. E. Moses, "AIDS: Sexual Behavior and Intravenous Drug Use,", National Academy Press, (1989).

[12]

C. L. Mendenhall, Immunity, malnutrition and alcohol,, Alcohol Health & Research World, 16 (1992), 23.

[13]

D. A. Murphy, W. D. Marelich, D. Hoffman and W. N. Steers, Predictors of antiretroviral adherence,, AIDS Care, 16 (2004), 471. doi: doi:10.1080/09540120410001683402.

[14]

D. de Walque, Sero-discordant couples in five African countries: Implications for prevention strategies,, Population and Development Review, 33 (2007), 501. doi: doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2007.00182.x.

[15]

D. J. Meyerhoff, Effects of alcohol and HIV infection on the central nervous system,, Alcohol Research & Health, 25 (2001), 288.

[16]

E. J. Kovacs and K. A. N. Messingham, Influence of alcohol and gender on immune response,, Alcohol Research & Health, 26 (2002), 257.

[17]

E. Kip and R. Kubanji, Alcohol use among people living with HIV and AIDS: a study of Hukuntsi, Thamaga and Bobonong in Botswana,, in, (2009).

[18]

G. A. Roselle, Alcohol and the immune system,, Alcohol Health & Research World, 16 (1992), 16.

[19]

G. Szabo, Alcohol's contribution to compromised immunity,, Alcohol Health & Research World, 21 (1997), 30.

[20]

G. Thomas and E. M. Lungu, The influence of heavy alcohol consumption on HIV infection and progression,, Journal of Biological Systems, 17 (2009), 615. doi: doi:10.1142/S0218339009003083.

[21]

H. E. Hutton, M. E. McCaul, P. B. Santora and E. J. Erbelding, The relationship between recent alcohol use and sexual behaviors: Gender differences among STD clinic patients,, Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research (ACER), 32 (2008), 2008.

[22]

I. W. Fong, S. Read, M. A. Wainberg, W. K. Chia and C. Major, Alcoholism and rapid progression to AIDS after seroconversion,, Clin. Infect. Dis., 19 (1994), 337.

[23]

J. J. Lewis, G. P. Garnett, S. Mhlanga, C. A. Nyamukapa, C. A. Donnelly and S. Gregson, Beer halls as a focus for HIV prevention activities in rural Zimbabwe,, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 32 (2005), 364. doi: doi:10.1097/01.olq.0000154506.84492.61.

[24]

J. A. Flora and C. E. Thorensen, Reducing the risk of AIDS in adolescents,, American Psychologist, 43 (1988), 965. doi: doi:10.1037/0003-066X.43.11.965.

[25]

J. Conigliaro, A. J. Gordon, K. A. McGinnis, L. Rabeneck and A. C. Justice, How harmful is hazardous alcohol use and abuse in HIV infection: Do health care providers know who is at risk?,, Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 33 (2003), 521.

[26]

J. C. Fisher, P. A. Cook, N. E. Sam and S. H. Kapiga, Patterns of alcohol use, problem drinking, and HIV infection among high-risk African women,, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 35 (2008), 537. doi: doi:10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181677547.

[27]

J. C. Fisher, H. Bang and S. H. Kapiga, The association between HIV infection and alcohol use: A systematic review and meta- analysis of African studies,, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 34 (2007), 856. doi: doi:10.1097/OLQ.0b013e318067b4fd.

[28]

J. C. Thompson, T. C. Kao and R. J. Thomas, The relationship between alcohol use and risk taking sexual behaviours in a large behavioural study,, Preventive Medicine, 41 (2005), 247.

[29]

J. H. Samet, N. J. Horton, S. Meli, K. A. Freedberg and A. Palepu, Alcohol consumption and antiretroviral adherence among HIV-infected persons with alcohol problems,, Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res., 28 (2004), 572. doi: doi:10.1097/01.ALC.0000122103.74491.78.

[30]

J. H. Samet, D. M. Cheng, H. Libman, D. P. Nunes, J. K. Alperen and R. Saitz, Alcohol consumption and HIV disease progression,, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndrome, 46 (2007), 194. doi: doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e318142aabb.

[31]

J. M. Hyman, J. Li and E. A. Stanley., The initialization and sensitivity of multigroup models for the transmission of HIV,, J. Theor. Biol., 208 (2001), 227. doi: doi:10.1006/jtbi.2000.2214.

[32]

J. T. Parsons, E. Rosof and B. Mustanski, The temporal relationship between alcohol consumption and HIV-medication adherence: A multilevel model of direct and moderating effects,, Health Psychol, 27 (2008), 628. doi: doi:10.1037/a0012664.

[33]

J. Todd, I. Cremin, N. McGrath, J. B. Bwanika, A. Wringe, M. Marston, I. Kasamba, P. Mushati, T. Lutalo, V. Hosegood and B. Zaba, Reported number of sexual partners: Comparison of data from four African longitudinal studies,, Sex. Transm. Infect., 85 (2009). doi: doi:10.1136/sti.2008.033985.

[34]

J. W. Ashley, B. Levine and R. Needle, Summary of the proceedings of meeting on 'alcohol, Hiv risk behaviours and transmission in Africa: Developing Programmemes for the United States President's emergency plan for Aids relief (PEPFAR)',, African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 5 (2006), 192.

[35]

J. Zheng, O. O. Yang, Y. Xie, R. Campbell, I. S. Chen and S. Pang, Ethanol stimulation of HIV infection of oral epithelial cells,, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 37 (2004), 1445. doi: doi:10.1097/01.qai.0000129572.13008.db.

[36]

K. E. Fritz, G. B. Woelk, M. T. Bassett, W. C. McFarland, J. A. Routh, O. Tobaiwa and R. D. Stall, The Association between alcohol use, sexual risk behavior and HIV infection among men attending beerhalls in Harare, Zimbabwe,, AIDS and Behavior, 6 (2002), 221. doi: doi:10.1023/A:1019887707474.

[37]

K. Peltzer, Drinking motives, behavior and problems among black south African university students,, African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 2 (2003), 1.

[38]

K. Peltzer and S. Ramlagan, Alcohol use trends in south Africa,, J. Soc. Sci., 18 (2009), 1.

[39]

L. C. Simbayi, S. C. Kalichman, D. Cain, C. Cherry, S. Jooste and V. Mathiti, Alcohol and risks for HIV/AIDS among sexually transmitted infection clinic patients in Cape Town, South Africa,, Substance Abuse, 27 (2006), 37. doi: doi:10.1300/J465v27n04_05.

[40]

L. C. Simbayi, S. C. Kalichman, S. Jooste, V. Mathiti, D. Cain and C. Cherry, Alcohol use and sexual risks for HIV infection among men and women receiving sexually transmittied infection clinic services in Cape Town, South Africa,, Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 65 (2004), 434.

[41]

M. C. Boily, R. F. Baggaley, L. Wang, B. Masse, R. G. White, R. J. Hayes and M. Alary, Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies,, Lancet Infect Dis., 9 (2009), 118. doi: doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(09)70021-0.

[42]

M. C. Dufour, What is moderate drinking? defining "drinks" and drinking levels,, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: Alcohol Reseach and Health, 23 (1999), 23.

[43]

M. Dahab, S. Charalambous, R. Hamilton, K. Fielding, K. Kielmann, G. J. Churchyard and A. D. Grant, "That is why I stopped the ART:" Patients' & providers' perspectives on barriers to and enablers of HIV treatment adherence in a South African workplace programme,, BMC Public Health, 8 (2008), 1471. doi: doi:10.1186/1471-2458-8-63.

[44]

M. Holmila and K. Raitasalo, Gender differences in drinking: Why do they still exist?,, Addiction, 100 (2005), 1763. doi: doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.01249.x.

[45]

Ministry of Health and Republic of Botswana, MASA,, available at , ().

[46]

M. L. Cooper, Alcohol and increased behavioral risk for AIDS,, Alcohol Health & Research World, 16 (1992), 64.

[47]

M. L. Cooper, Does drinking promote risky sexual behavior?,, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15 (2006), 19. doi: doi:10.1111/j.0963-7214.2006.00385.x.

[48]

M. Livingston and R. Room, Variations by age and sex in alcohol-related problematic behaviour per drinking volume and heavier drinking occasion,, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 101 (2009), 169. doi: doi:10.1111/j.0963-7214.2006.00385.x.

[49]

M. Lurie, P. Pronyk, E. de Moor, A. Heyer, G. de Bruyn, H. Struthers, J. McIntyre, G. Gray, E. Marinda, K. Klipstein-Grobusch and N. Martinson, Sexual behavior and reproductive health among HIV-infected patients in urban and rural South Africa,, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 47 (2008), 484. doi: doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181648de8.

[50]

M. Morris and M. Kretzschmar, Concurrent partnerships and the spread of HIV,, AIDS, 11 (1997), 641.

[51]

M. N. Lurie, B. G. Williams, K. Zuma, D. Mkaya-Mwamburi, G. P. Garnett, M. D. Sweat, J. Gittelsohn and S. S. Karim, Who infects whom? HIV-1 concordance and discordance among migrant and non-migrant couples in South Africa,, AIDS, 17 (2003), 2245.

[52]

O. Sharomi, C. N. Podder, A. B. Gumel, E. H. Elbasha and J. Watmough, Role of incidence function in vaccine-induced backward bifurcation in some HIV models,, Mathematical Biosciences, 210 (2007), 436. doi: doi:10.1016/j.mbs.2007.05.012.

[53]

P. W. Kaly, M. Heesacker and H. M. Frost, Collegiate alcohol use and high-risk sexual behavior: A literature review,, Journal of College Student Development, 43 (2002), 838.

[54]

P. van den Driessche and J. Watmough, Reproduction numbers and sub-threshold endemic equilibria for compartmental models of disease transmission,, Mathematical Biosciences, 180 (2002), 29. doi: doi:10.1016/S0025-5564(02)00108-6.

[55]

P. W. Mercer and K. A. Khavari, Are women drinking more like men? An empirical examination of the convergence hypothesis,, Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 14 (2006), 461. doi: doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.1990.tb00504.x.

[56]

R. H. Gray, M. J. Wawer, R. Brookmeyer, N. K. Sewankambo, D. Serwadda, F. Wabwire-Mangen, T. Lutalo, X. Li, T. vanCott, T. C. Quinn and the Rakai Project Team, Probability of HIV-1 transmission in per coital act in monogamous,heterosexual, HIV-1-discordant couples in Rakai, Uganda,, The Lancet, 357 (2001), 1149. doi: doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04331-2.

[57]

R. L. Cook, F. Zhu, B. H. Belnap, K. Weber, J. A. Cook, D. Vlahov, T. E. Wilson, N. A. Hessol, M. Plankey, A. A. Howard, S. R. Cole, G. B. Sharp, J. L. Richardson and M. H. Cohen, Longitudinal trends in hazardous alcohol consumption among women with human immunodeficiency virus infection, 1995-2006,, American Journal of Epidemiology, 169 (2009), 1025. doi: doi:10.1093/aje/kwp004.

[58]

R. M. Anderson, S. Gupta and W. Ng, The significance of sexual partner contact networks for the transmission dynamics of HIV,, Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 3 (1990), 417.

[59]

S. C. Kalichman, L. C. Simbayi, D. Cain and S. Jooste, Alcohol expectancies and risky drinking among men and womenat high-risk for HIV infection in Cape Town South Africa,, Addictive Behaviors, 32 (2007), 2304. doi: doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.01.026.

[60]

S. C. Kalichman, L. C. Simbayi, M. Kaufmann, D. Cain and S. Jooste, Alcohol use and sexual risks for HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa: Systematic review of empirical findings,, Prev. Sci., 8 (2007), 141. doi: doi:10.1007/s11121-006-0061-2.

[61]

S. C. Kalichman, L. C. Simbayi, D. Cain and S. Jooste, Frequency, quantity and contextual use of alcohol among sexually transmitted infection clinic patients in Cape Town, South Africa,, The Amerian Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 33 (2007), 687. doi: doi:10.1080/00952990701522716.

[62]

S. C. Kalichman, L. C. Simbayi, R. Vermaak, S. Jooste and D. Cain, HIV/AIDS risks among men and women who drink at informal alcohol serving establishments (shebeens) in Cape Town, South Africa,, Prev. Sci., 9 (2008), 55. doi: doi:10.1007/s11121-008-0085-x.

[63]

S. C. Kalichman, L. C. Simbayi, R. Vermaak, D. Cain, S. Jooste, K. Peltzer and D. Habilis, HIV/AIDS risk reduction counseling for alcohol using sexually transmitted infection clinic patients in Cape Town, South Africa,, J. Acqui. Immnu. Defic. Syndr., 44 (2007), 594.

[64]

S.C.Kalichman, L. C. Simbayi, S. Jooste, R. Vermaak and D. Cain, Sensation seeking and alcohol use predict HIV transmission risks: Prospective study of sexually transmitted infection clinic patients, Cape Town, South Africa,, Addictive Behaviors, 33 (2008), 1630. doi: doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.07.020.

[65]

S. D. Weiser, K. Leiter, M. Heisler, W. McFarland, F. Percy de Korte, S. M. DeMonner, S. Tlou, N. Phaladze, V. Iacopino and D. R. Bangsberg, A population-based study on alcohol and high-risk sexual behaviors in Botswana,, PLoS Med., 3 (2006). doi: doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030392.

[66]

S. E. Msuya, E. Mbizvo, A. Hussain, J. Uriyo, N. E. Sam and B. Stray-Pedersen, HIV among pregnant women in Moshi Tanzania: The role of sexual behavior, male partner characteristics and sexually transmitted infections,, AIDS Research and Therapy, 3 (2006). doi: doi:10.1186/1742-6405-3-27.

[67]

S. M. Kiene, L. C. Simbayi, A. Abrams, A. Cloete, H. Tennen and J. D. Fisher, High rates of unprotected sex occurring among HIV- positive individuals in a daily diary study in South Africa: The role of alcohol use,, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 49 (2008), 219. doi: doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e318184559f.

[68]

S. M. Mbulaiteye, A. Ruberantwari, J. S. Nakiyingi, L. M. Carpenter, A. Kamali and J. A. G. Whitworth, Alcohol and HIV: A study among sexually active adults in rural southwest Uganda,, International Journal of Epidemiology, 29 (2000), 911. doi: doi:10.1093/ije/29.5.911.

[69]

S. Ramotlhwa, The cost of the MASA programme, Botswana's ARV treatment programme: Past lessons and future outlook,, 2005, ().

[70]

T. E. Kruger and T. R. Jerrels, Potential role of alcohol in human immunodeficiency virus infection,, Alcohol Health & Research World, 16 (1992), 57.

[71]

T. J. O'Farrell, D. L. Thompson and C. A. Weyand, Growing interest in alcohol and human sexuality revealed in the literature from 1941-1980,, Sexuality and Disability, 7 (1984), 51. doi: doi:10.1007/BF01101830.

[72]

UNAIDS, Addressing multiple and concurrent partnerships in Southern Africa,, available at , ().

[73]

UNAIDS, Epidemiological software and tools,, 2005, ().

[74]

UNAIDS, 2008 Report on the global AIDS epidemic,, available at , ().

[75]

UNAIDS, AIDS epidemic update December 2009,, available at , ().

[76]

UNAIDS, Tuberculosis and HIV., available at , ().

[77]

United States Department of Agriculture and United States Department of Health and Human Services, "Dietary Guidelines for Americans,", US Government Printing Office, (2005).

[78]

V. Ehrenstein, N. J. Horton and J. H. Samet, Inconsistent condom use among HIV-infected patients with alcohol problems,, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 73 (2004), 159. doi: doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2003.10.011.

[79]

WHO, Alcohol, gender and drinking problems: Perspectives from low and middle income countries,, available at , ().

[80]

WHO, Alcohol use and sexual risk behavior: A cross cultural study in eight countries,, available at , ().

[81]

WHO, Global status report on alcohol 2004,, available at , ().

[82]

WHO, WHO expert committee on problems related to alcohol consumption,, available at , ().

show all references

References:
[1]

A. B. Morris and I. P. Albery, Alcohol consumption and HIV risk behaviours: Integrating the theories of alcohol myopia and outcome-expectancies,, Addiction Research and Theory, 9 (2001), 73. doi: doi:10.3109/16066350109141773.

[2]

A. L. Pithey and N. K. Morojele, Literature review on alcohol use and sexual risk behaviour in South Africa,, 2002, (2009).

[3]

A. O. Odejide, Status of drug use/abuse in Africa: A review,, Int. J. Ment. Health Addict., 4 (2006), 87. doi: doi:10.1007/s11469-006-9015-y.

[4]

A. Palepu, N. J. Horton, N. Tibbetts, S. Meli and J. H. Samet, Uptake and adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected people with alcohol and other substance use problems: The impact of substance abuse treatment,, Addiction, 99 (2004), 361. doi: doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2003.00670.x.

[5]

B. C. Leigh, Alcohol and condom use a meta-analysis of event-level studies,, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 29 (2002), 476. doi: doi:10.1097/00007435-200208000-00008.

[6]

B. C. Leigh and R. Stall, Substance use and risky sexual behavior for exposure to HIV: Issues in methodology, interpretation and prevention,, Am. Psychol., 48 (1993), 1035. doi: doi:10.1037/0003-066X.48.10.1035.

[7]

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Frequently asked questions,, available at , ().

[8]

Central Statistics Office, "Botswana AIDS Impact Survey III (BAIS III),", CSO, (2009).

[9]

Central Statistics Office, "Botswana Demographic Survey 2006,", CSO, (2009).

[10]

C. Emslie, H. Lewars, G. D. Batty and K. Hunt, Are there gender differences in levels of heavy, binge and problem drinking? Evidence from three generations in the west of Scotland,, Public Health, 123 (2009), 12. doi: doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2008.06.001.

[11]

C. F. Turner, H. G. Miller and L. E. Moses, "AIDS: Sexual Behavior and Intravenous Drug Use,", National Academy Press, (1989).

[12]

C. L. Mendenhall, Immunity, malnutrition and alcohol,, Alcohol Health & Research World, 16 (1992), 23.

[13]

D. A. Murphy, W. D. Marelich, D. Hoffman and W. N. Steers, Predictors of antiretroviral adherence,, AIDS Care, 16 (2004), 471. doi: doi:10.1080/09540120410001683402.

[14]

D. de Walque, Sero-discordant couples in five African countries: Implications for prevention strategies,, Population and Development Review, 33 (2007), 501. doi: doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2007.00182.x.

[15]

D. J. Meyerhoff, Effects of alcohol and HIV infection on the central nervous system,, Alcohol Research & Health, 25 (2001), 288.

[16]

E. J. Kovacs and K. A. N. Messingham, Influence of alcohol and gender on immune response,, Alcohol Research & Health, 26 (2002), 257.

[17]

E. Kip and R. Kubanji, Alcohol use among people living with HIV and AIDS: a study of Hukuntsi, Thamaga and Bobonong in Botswana,, in, (2009).

[18]

G. A. Roselle, Alcohol and the immune system,, Alcohol Health & Research World, 16 (1992), 16.

[19]

G. Szabo, Alcohol's contribution to compromised immunity,, Alcohol Health & Research World, 21 (1997), 30.

[20]

G. Thomas and E. M. Lungu, The influence of heavy alcohol consumption on HIV infection and progression,, Journal of Biological Systems, 17 (2009), 615. doi: doi:10.1142/S0218339009003083.

[21]

H. E. Hutton, M. E. McCaul, P. B. Santora and E. J. Erbelding, The relationship between recent alcohol use and sexual behaviors: Gender differences among STD clinic patients,, Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research (ACER), 32 (2008), 2008.

[22]

I. W. Fong, S. Read, M. A. Wainberg, W. K. Chia and C. Major, Alcoholism and rapid progression to AIDS after seroconversion,, Clin. Infect. Dis., 19 (1994), 337.

[23]

J. J. Lewis, G. P. Garnett, S. Mhlanga, C. A. Nyamukapa, C. A. Donnelly and S. Gregson, Beer halls as a focus for HIV prevention activities in rural Zimbabwe,, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 32 (2005), 364. doi: doi:10.1097/01.olq.0000154506.84492.61.

[24]

J. A. Flora and C. E. Thorensen, Reducing the risk of AIDS in adolescents,, American Psychologist, 43 (1988), 965. doi: doi:10.1037/0003-066X.43.11.965.

[25]

J. Conigliaro, A. J. Gordon, K. A. McGinnis, L. Rabeneck and A. C. Justice, How harmful is hazardous alcohol use and abuse in HIV infection: Do health care providers know who is at risk?,, Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 33 (2003), 521.

[26]

J. C. Fisher, P. A. Cook, N. E. Sam and S. H. Kapiga, Patterns of alcohol use, problem drinking, and HIV infection among high-risk African women,, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 35 (2008), 537. doi: doi:10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181677547.

[27]

J. C. Fisher, H. Bang and S. H. Kapiga, The association between HIV infection and alcohol use: A systematic review and meta- analysis of African studies,, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 34 (2007), 856. doi: doi:10.1097/OLQ.0b013e318067b4fd.

[28]

J. C. Thompson, T. C. Kao and R. J. Thomas, The relationship between alcohol use and risk taking sexual behaviours in a large behavioural study,, Preventive Medicine, 41 (2005), 247.

[29]

J. H. Samet, N. J. Horton, S. Meli, K. A. Freedberg and A. Palepu, Alcohol consumption and antiretroviral adherence among HIV-infected persons with alcohol problems,, Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res., 28 (2004), 572. doi: doi:10.1097/01.ALC.0000122103.74491.78.

[30]

J. H. Samet, D. M. Cheng, H. Libman, D. P. Nunes, J. K. Alperen and R. Saitz, Alcohol consumption and HIV disease progression,, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndrome, 46 (2007), 194. doi: doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e318142aabb.

[31]

J. M. Hyman, J. Li and E. A. Stanley., The initialization and sensitivity of multigroup models for the transmission of HIV,, J. Theor. Biol., 208 (2001), 227. doi: doi:10.1006/jtbi.2000.2214.

[32]

J. T. Parsons, E. Rosof and B. Mustanski, The temporal relationship between alcohol consumption and HIV-medication adherence: A multilevel model of direct and moderating effects,, Health Psychol, 27 (2008), 628. doi: doi:10.1037/a0012664.

[33]

J. Todd, I. Cremin, N. McGrath, J. B. Bwanika, A. Wringe, M. Marston, I. Kasamba, P. Mushati, T. Lutalo, V. Hosegood and B. Zaba, Reported number of sexual partners: Comparison of data from four African longitudinal studies,, Sex. Transm. Infect., 85 (2009). doi: doi:10.1136/sti.2008.033985.

[34]

J. W. Ashley, B. Levine and R. Needle, Summary of the proceedings of meeting on 'alcohol, Hiv risk behaviours and transmission in Africa: Developing Programmemes for the United States President's emergency plan for Aids relief (PEPFAR)',, African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 5 (2006), 192.

[35]

J. Zheng, O. O. Yang, Y. Xie, R. Campbell, I. S. Chen and S. Pang, Ethanol stimulation of HIV infection of oral epithelial cells,, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 37 (2004), 1445. doi: doi:10.1097/01.qai.0000129572.13008.db.

[36]

K. E. Fritz, G. B. Woelk, M. T. Bassett, W. C. McFarland, J. A. Routh, O. Tobaiwa and R. D. Stall, The Association between alcohol use, sexual risk behavior and HIV infection among men attending beerhalls in Harare, Zimbabwe,, AIDS and Behavior, 6 (2002), 221. doi: doi:10.1023/A:1019887707474.

[37]

K. Peltzer, Drinking motives, behavior and problems among black south African university students,, African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, 2 (2003), 1.

[38]

K. Peltzer and S. Ramlagan, Alcohol use trends in south Africa,, J. Soc. Sci., 18 (2009), 1.

[39]

L. C. Simbayi, S. C. Kalichman, D. Cain, C. Cherry, S. Jooste and V. Mathiti, Alcohol and risks for HIV/AIDS among sexually transmitted infection clinic patients in Cape Town, South Africa,, Substance Abuse, 27 (2006), 37. doi: doi:10.1300/J465v27n04_05.

[40]

L. C. Simbayi, S. C. Kalichman, S. Jooste, V. Mathiti, D. Cain and C. Cherry, Alcohol use and sexual risks for HIV infection among men and women receiving sexually transmittied infection clinic services in Cape Town, South Africa,, Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 65 (2004), 434.

[41]

M. C. Boily, R. F. Baggaley, L. Wang, B. Masse, R. G. White, R. J. Hayes and M. Alary, Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies,, Lancet Infect Dis., 9 (2009), 118. doi: doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(09)70021-0.

[42]

M. C. Dufour, What is moderate drinking? defining "drinks" and drinking levels,, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: Alcohol Reseach and Health, 23 (1999), 23.

[43]

M. Dahab, S. Charalambous, R. Hamilton, K. Fielding, K. Kielmann, G. J. Churchyard and A. D. Grant, "That is why I stopped the ART:" Patients' & providers' perspectives on barriers to and enablers of HIV treatment adherence in a South African workplace programme,, BMC Public Health, 8 (2008), 1471. doi: doi:10.1186/1471-2458-8-63.

[44]

M. Holmila and K. Raitasalo, Gender differences in drinking: Why do they still exist?,, Addiction, 100 (2005), 1763. doi: doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.01249.x.

[45]

Ministry of Health and Republic of Botswana, MASA,, available at , ().

[46]

M. L. Cooper, Alcohol and increased behavioral risk for AIDS,, Alcohol Health & Research World, 16 (1992), 64.

[47]

M. L. Cooper, Does drinking promote risky sexual behavior?,, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15 (2006), 19. doi: doi:10.1111/j.0963-7214.2006.00385.x.

[48]

M. Livingston and R. Room, Variations by age and sex in alcohol-related problematic behaviour per drinking volume and heavier drinking occasion,, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 101 (2009), 169. doi: doi:10.1111/j.0963-7214.2006.00385.x.

[49]

M. Lurie, P. Pronyk, E. de Moor, A. Heyer, G. de Bruyn, H. Struthers, J. McIntyre, G. Gray, E. Marinda, K. Klipstein-Grobusch and N. Martinson, Sexual behavior and reproductive health among HIV-infected patients in urban and rural South Africa,, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 47 (2008), 484. doi: doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181648de8.

[50]

M. Morris and M. Kretzschmar, Concurrent partnerships and the spread of HIV,, AIDS, 11 (1997), 641.

[51]

M. N. Lurie, B. G. Williams, K. Zuma, D. Mkaya-Mwamburi, G. P. Garnett, M. D. Sweat, J. Gittelsohn and S. S. Karim, Who infects whom? HIV-1 concordance and discordance among migrant and non-migrant couples in South Africa,, AIDS, 17 (2003), 2245.

[52]

O. Sharomi, C. N. Podder, A. B. Gumel, E. H. Elbasha and J. Watmough, Role of incidence function in vaccine-induced backward bifurcation in some HIV models,, Mathematical Biosciences, 210 (2007), 436. doi: doi:10.1016/j.mbs.2007.05.012.

[53]

P. W. Kaly, M. Heesacker and H. M. Frost, Collegiate alcohol use and high-risk sexual behavior: A literature review,, Journal of College Student Development, 43 (2002), 838.

[54]

P. van den Driessche and J. Watmough, Reproduction numbers and sub-threshold endemic equilibria for compartmental models of disease transmission,, Mathematical Biosciences, 180 (2002), 29. doi: doi:10.1016/S0025-5564(02)00108-6.

[55]

P. W. Mercer and K. A. Khavari, Are women drinking more like men? An empirical examination of the convergence hypothesis,, Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 14 (2006), 461. doi: doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.1990.tb00504.x.

[56]

R. H. Gray, M. J. Wawer, R. Brookmeyer, N. K. Sewankambo, D. Serwadda, F. Wabwire-Mangen, T. Lutalo, X. Li, T. vanCott, T. C. Quinn and the Rakai Project Team, Probability of HIV-1 transmission in per coital act in monogamous,heterosexual, HIV-1-discordant couples in Rakai, Uganda,, The Lancet, 357 (2001), 1149. doi: doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04331-2.

[57]

R. L. Cook, F. Zhu, B. H. Belnap, K. Weber, J. A. Cook, D. Vlahov, T. E. Wilson, N. A. Hessol, M. Plankey, A. A. Howard, S. R. Cole, G. B. Sharp, J. L. Richardson and M. H. Cohen, Longitudinal trends in hazardous alcohol consumption among women with human immunodeficiency virus infection, 1995-2006,, American Journal of Epidemiology, 169 (2009), 1025. doi: doi:10.1093/aje/kwp004.

[58]

R. M. Anderson, S. Gupta and W. Ng, The significance of sexual partner contact networks for the transmission dynamics of HIV,, Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 3 (1990), 417.

[59]

S. C. Kalichman, L. C. Simbayi, D. Cain and S. Jooste, Alcohol expectancies and risky drinking among men and womenat high-risk for HIV infection in Cape Town South Africa,, Addictive Behaviors, 32 (2007), 2304. doi: doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.01.026.

[60]

S. C. Kalichman, L. C. Simbayi, M. Kaufmann, D. Cain and S. Jooste, Alcohol use and sexual risks for HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa: Systematic review of empirical findings,, Prev. Sci., 8 (2007), 141. doi: doi:10.1007/s11121-006-0061-2.

[61]

S. C. Kalichman, L. C. Simbayi, D. Cain and S. Jooste, Frequency, quantity and contextual use of alcohol among sexually transmitted infection clinic patients in Cape Town, South Africa,, The Amerian Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 33 (2007), 687. doi: doi:10.1080/00952990701522716.

[62]

S. C. Kalichman, L. C. Simbayi, R. Vermaak, S. Jooste and D. Cain, HIV/AIDS risks among men and women who drink at informal alcohol serving establishments (shebeens) in Cape Town, South Africa,, Prev. Sci., 9 (2008), 55. doi: doi:10.1007/s11121-008-0085-x.

[63]

S. C. Kalichman, L. C. Simbayi, R. Vermaak, D. Cain, S. Jooste, K. Peltzer and D. Habilis, HIV/AIDS risk reduction counseling for alcohol using sexually transmitted infection clinic patients in Cape Town, South Africa,, J. Acqui. Immnu. Defic. Syndr., 44 (2007), 594.

[64]

S.C.Kalichman, L. C. Simbayi, S. Jooste, R. Vermaak and D. Cain, Sensation seeking and alcohol use predict HIV transmission risks: Prospective study of sexually transmitted infection clinic patients, Cape Town, South Africa,, Addictive Behaviors, 33 (2008), 1630. doi: doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.07.020.

[65]

S. D. Weiser, K. Leiter, M. Heisler, W. McFarland, F. Percy de Korte, S. M. DeMonner, S. Tlou, N. Phaladze, V. Iacopino and D. R. Bangsberg, A population-based study on alcohol and high-risk sexual behaviors in Botswana,, PLoS Med., 3 (2006). doi: doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030392.

[66]

S. E. Msuya, E. Mbizvo, A. Hussain, J. Uriyo, N. E. Sam and B. Stray-Pedersen, HIV among pregnant women in Moshi Tanzania: The role of sexual behavior, male partner characteristics and sexually transmitted infections,, AIDS Research and Therapy, 3 (2006). doi: doi:10.1186/1742-6405-3-27.

[67]

S. M. Kiene, L. C. Simbayi, A. Abrams, A. Cloete, H. Tennen and J. D. Fisher, High rates of unprotected sex occurring among HIV- positive individuals in a daily diary study in South Africa: The role of alcohol use,, J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 49 (2008), 219. doi: doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e318184559f.

[68]

S. M. Mbulaiteye, A. Ruberantwari, J. S. Nakiyingi, L. M. Carpenter, A. Kamali and J. A. G. Whitworth, Alcohol and HIV: A study among sexually active adults in rural southwest Uganda,, International Journal of Epidemiology, 29 (2000), 911. doi: doi:10.1093/ije/29.5.911.

[69]

S. Ramotlhwa, The cost of the MASA programme, Botswana's ARV treatment programme: Past lessons and future outlook,, 2005, ().

[70]

T. E. Kruger and T. R. Jerrels, Potential role of alcohol in human immunodeficiency virus infection,, Alcohol Health & Research World, 16 (1992), 57.

[71]

T. J. O'Farrell, D. L. Thompson and C. A. Weyand, Growing interest in alcohol and human sexuality revealed in the literature from 1941-1980,, Sexuality and Disability, 7 (1984), 51. doi: doi:10.1007/BF01101830.

[72]

UNAIDS, Addressing multiple and concurrent partnerships in Southern Africa,, available at , ().

[73]

UNAIDS, Epidemiological software and tools,, 2005, ().

[74]

UNAIDS, 2008 Report on the global AIDS epidemic,, available at , ().

[75]

UNAIDS, AIDS epidemic update December 2009,, available at , ().

[76]

UNAIDS, Tuberculosis and HIV., available at , ().

[77]

United States Department of Agriculture and United States Department of Health and Human Services, "Dietary Guidelines for Americans,", US Government Printing Office, (2005).

[78]

V. Ehrenstein, N. J. Horton and J. H. Samet, Inconsistent condom use among HIV-infected patients with alcohol problems,, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 73 (2004), 159. doi: doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2003.10.011.

[79]

WHO, Alcohol, gender and drinking problems: Perspectives from low and middle income countries,, available at , ().

[80]

WHO, Alcohol use and sexual risk behavior: A cross cultural study in eight countries,, available at , ().

[81]

WHO, Global status report on alcohol 2004,, available at , ().

[82]

WHO, WHO expert committee on problems related to alcohol consumption,, available at , ().

[1]

Cristiana J. Silva, Delfim F. M. Torres. A TB-HIV/AIDS coinfection model and optimal control treatment. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A, 2015, 35 (9) : 4639-4663. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2015.35.4639

[2]

Cristiana J. Silva, Delfim F. M. Torres. Modeling and optimal control of HIV/AIDS prevention through PrEP. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - S, 2018, 11 (1) : 119-141. doi: 10.3934/dcdss.2018008

[3]

Christopher M. Kribs-Zaleta, Melanie Lee, Christine Román, Shari Wiley, Carlos M. Hernández-Suárez. The Effect of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic on Africa's Truck Drivers. Mathematical Biosciences & Engineering, 2005, 2 (4) : 771-788. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2005.2.771

[4]

Brandy Rapatski, Petra Klepac, Stephen Dueck, Maoxing Liu, Leda Ivic Weiss. Mathematical epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in cuba during the period 1986-2000. Mathematical Biosciences & Engineering, 2006, 3 (3) : 545-556. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2006.3.545

[5]

Moatlhodi Kgosimore, Edward M. Lungu. The Effects of Vertical Transmission on the Spread of HIV/AIDS in the Presence of Treatment. Mathematical Biosciences & Engineering, 2006, 3 (2) : 297-312. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2006.3.297

[6]

Arni S.R. Srinivasa Rao, Masayuki Kakehashi. Incubation-time distribution in back-calculation applied to HIV/AIDS data in India. Mathematical Biosciences & Engineering, 2005, 2 (2) : 263-277. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2005.2.263

[7]

Nicolas Bacaër, Xamxinur Abdurahman, Jianli Ye, Pierre Auger. On the basic reproduction number $R_0$ in sexual activity models for HIV/AIDS epidemics: Example from Yunnan, China. Mathematical Biosciences & Engineering, 2007, 4 (4) : 595-607. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2007.4.595

[8]

Arni S. R. Srinivasa Rao, Kurien Thomas, Kurapati Sudhakar, Philip K. Maini. HIV/AIDS epidemic in India and predicting the impact of the national response: Mathematical modeling and analysis. Mathematical Biosciences & Engineering, 2009, 6 (4) : 779-813. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2009.6.779

[9]

Ridouan Bani, Rasheed Hameed, Steve Szymanowski, Priscilla Greenwood, Christopher M. Kribs-Zaleta, Anuj Mubayi. Influence of environmental factors on college alcohol drinking patterns. Mathematical Biosciences & Engineering, 2013, 10 (5&6) : 1281-1300. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2013.10.1281

[10]

Zheng Dai, I.G. Rosen, Chuming Wang, Nancy Barnett, Susan E. Luczak. Using drinking data and pharmacokinetic modeling to calibrate transport model and blind deconvolution based data analysis software for transdermal alcohol biosensors. Mathematical Biosciences & Engineering, 2016, 13 (5) : 911-934. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2016023

[11]

Miguel Atencia, Esther García-Garaluz, Gonzalo Joya. The ratio of hidden HIV infection in Cuba. Mathematical Biosciences & Engineering, 2013, 10 (4) : 959-977. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2013.10.959

[12]

Filipe Rodrigues, Cristiana J. Silva, Delfim F. M. Torres, Helmut Maurer. Optimal control of a delayed HIV model. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - B, 2018, 23 (1) : 443-458. doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2018030

[13]

Ellina Grigorieva, Evgenii Khailov, Andrei Korobeinikov. An optimal control problem in HIV treatment. Conference Publications, 2013, 2013 (special) : 311-322. doi: 10.3934/proc.2013.2013.311

[14]

Nirav Dalal, David Greenhalgh, Xuerong Mao. Mathematical modelling of internal HIV dynamics. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - B, 2009, 12 (2) : 305-321. doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2009.12.305

[15]

Lih-Ing W. Roeger, Z. Feng, Carlos Castillo-Chávez. Modeling TB and HIV co-infections. Mathematical Biosciences & Engineering, 2009, 6 (4) : 815-837. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2009.6.815

[16]

Helen Moore, Weiqing Gu. A mathematical model for treatment-resistant mutations of HIV. Mathematical Biosciences & Engineering, 2005, 2 (2) : 363-380. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2005.2.363

[17]

Nara Bobko, Jorge P. Zubelli. A singularly perturbed HIV model with treatment and antigenic variation. Mathematical Biosciences & Engineering, 2015, 12 (1) : 1-21. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2015.12.1

[18]

H. T. Banks, Robert Baraldi, Karissa Cross, Kevin Flores, Christina McChesney, Laura Poag, Emma Thorpe. Uncertainty quantification in modeling HIV viral mechanics. Mathematical Biosciences & Engineering, 2015, 12 (5) : 937-964. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2015.12.937

[19]

Hem Joshi, Suzanne Lenhart, Kendra Albright, Kevin Gipson. Modeling the effect of information campaigns on the HIV epidemic in Uganda. Mathematical Biosciences & Engineering, 2008, 5 (4) : 757-770. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2008.5.757

[20]

H. Thomas Banks, Shuhua Hu, Zackary R. Kenz, Hien T. Tran. A comparison of nonlinear filtering approaches in the context of an HIV model. Mathematical Biosciences & Engineering, 2010, 7 (2) : 213-236. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2010.7.213

2017 Impact Factor: 1.23

Metrics

  • PDF downloads (8)
  • HTML views (0)
  • Cited by (0)

Other articles
by authors

[Back to Top]