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Bifurcation analysis of HIV-1 infection model with cell-to-cell transmission and immune response delay

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  • A within-host viral infection model with both virus-to-cell and cell-to-cell transmissions and time delay in immune response is investigated. Mathematical analysis shows that delay may destabilize the infected steady state and lead to Hopf bifurcation. Moreover, the direction of the Hopf bifurcation and the stability of the periodic solutions are investigated by normal form and center manifold theory. Numerical simulations are done to explore the rich dynamics, including stability switches, Hopf bifurcations, and chaotic oscillations.
    Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary: 34K20, 92D30; Secondary: 34C23, 34K60.


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