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March  2019, 9(1): 191-219. doi: 10.3934/mcrf.2019011

Boundary controllability for a one-dimensional heat equation with a singular inverse-square potential

Facultad Ingeniería, Universidad de Deusto, Avda Universidades 24, 48007 Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain

Received  May 2016 Revised  May 2017 Published  November 2018

Fund Project: This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No. 694126DyCon). Moreover, this work was partially supported by the Grants MTM2014-52347, MTM201792996 of MINECO (Spain), and AFOSR Grant FA9550-18-1-0242

We analyze controllability properties for the one-dimensional heat equation with singular inverse-square potential
$\begin{align*} u_t-u_{xx}-\frac{\mu}{x^2}u = 0, \;\;\; (x, t)\in(0, 1)\times(0, T).\end{align*}$
For any
$\mu<1/4$
, we prove that the equation is null controllable through a boundary control
$f\in H^1(0, T)$
acting at the singularity point x = 0. This result is obtained employing the moment method by Fattorini and Russell.
Citation: Umberto Biccari. Boundary controllability for a one-dimensional heat equation with a singular inverse-square potential. Mathematical Control & Related Fields, 2019, 9 (1) : 191-219. doi: 10.3934/mcrf.2019011
References:
[1]

F. ArarunaE. Fernández-Cara and M. Santos, Stackelberg-Nash exact controllability for linear and semilinear parabolic equations, ESAIM: COCV, 21 (2015), 835-856. doi: 10.1051/cocv/2014052. Google Scholar

[2]

P. Baras and J. A. Goldstein, The heat equation with a singular potential, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 284 (1984), 121-139. doi: 10.1090/S0002-9947-1984-0742415-3. Google Scholar

[3]

H. Berestycki and M. J. Esteban, Existence and bifurcation of solutions for an elliptic degenerate problem, J. Differential Equations, 134 (1997), 1-25. doi: 10.1006/jdeq.1996.3165. Google Scholar

[4]

U. Biccari and E. Zuazua, Null controllability for a heat equation with a singular inverse-square potential involving the distance to the boundary function, J. Differential Equations, 261 (2016), 2809-2853. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2016.05.019. Google Scholar

[5]

P. CannarsaP. Martinez and J. Vancostenoble, Null controllability of degenerate heat equations, Adv. Diff. Eq., 10 (2005), 153-190. Google Scholar

[6]

P. CannarsaP. Martinez and J. Vancostenoble, Carleman estimates for a class of degenerate parabolic operators, SIAM J. Control Optim., 47 (2008), 1-19. doi: 10.1137/04062062X. Google Scholar

[7]

P. Cannarsa, P. Martinez and J. Vancostenoble, Global Carleman Estimates for Degenerate Parabolic Operators with Applications, vol. 239. American Mathematical Society, 2016. doi: 10.1090/memo/1133. Google Scholar

[8]

P. CannarsaP. Martinez and J. Vancostenoble, The cost of controlling weakly degenerate parabolic equations by boundary controls, Mat. Control Relat. Fields, 7 (2017), 171-211. doi: 10.3934/mcrf.2017006. Google Scholar

[9]

P. Cannarsa, P. Martinez and J. Vancostenoble, Precise estimates for biorthogonal families under asymptotic gap conditions, arXiv preprint, arXiv: 1706.02435, (2017).Google Scholar

[10]

P. Cannarsa, P. Martinez and J. Vancostenoble, The cost of controlling strongly degenerate parabolic equations, Indiana Univ. Math. J., 49 (2000), 815-818, arXiv: 1801.01380. doi: 10.1512/iumj.2000.49.2110. Google Scholar

[11]

P. CannarsaJ. Tort and M. Yamamoto, Unique continuation and approximate controllability for a degenerate parabolic equation, Appl. Anal., 91 (2012), 1409-1425. doi: 10.1080/00036811.2011.639766. Google Scholar

[12]

C. Cazacu, Schrödinger operators with boundary singularities: Hardy inequality, Pohozaev identity and controllability results, J. Funct. Anal., 263 (2012), 3741-3783. doi: 10.1016/j.jfa.2012.09.006. Google Scholar

[13]

C. Cazacu, Controllability of the heat equation with an inverse-square potential localized on the boundary, SIAM J. Control Optim., 52 (2014), 2055-2089. doi: 10.1137/120862557. Google Scholar

[14]

S. Ervedoza, Control and stabilization properties for a singular heat equation with an inverse-square potential, Comm. Part. Diff. Eq., 33 (2008), 1996-2019. doi: 10.1080/03605300802402633. Google Scholar

[15]

H. O. Fattorini and D. L. Russell, Exact controllability theorems for linear parabolic equations in one space dimension, Arch. Rat. Mech. Anal., 43 (1971), 272-292. doi: 10.1007/BF00250466. Google Scholar

[16]

H. O. Fattorini and D. L. Russell, Uniform bounds on biorthogonal functions for real exponentials with an application to the control theory of parabolic equations, Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, 32 (1974), 45-69. doi: 10.1090/qam/510972. Google Scholar

[17]

E. Fernández-CaraM. González-Burgos and L. de Teresa, Boundary controllability of parabolic coupled equations, J. Funct. Anal., 259 (2010), 1720-1758. doi: 10.1016/j.jfa.2010.06.003. Google Scholar

[18]

E. Fernández-Cara and E. Zuazua, The cost of approximate controllability for heat equations: The linear case, Adv. Differ. Equ., 5 (2000), 465-514. Google Scholar

[19]

E. Fernández-Cara and E. Zuazua, Null and approximate controllability for weakly blowing up semilinear heat equations, In Ann. Inst. H. Poincarè Anal. Non Linèaire, 17 (2000), 583-616. doi: 10.1016/S0294-1449(00)00117-7. Google Scholar

[20]

J. Garcia Azorero and I. Peral Alonso, Hardy inequalities and some critical elliptic and parabolic problems, J. Differential Equations, 144 (1998), 441-476. doi: 10.1006/jdeq.1997.3375. Google Scholar

[21]

P. R. GiriK. S. GuptaS. Meljanac and A. Samsarov, Electron capture and scaling anomaly in polar molecules, Phys. Lett. A, 372 (2008), 2967-2970. Google Scholar

[22]

M. Gueye, Exact boundary controllability of 1-D parabolic and hyperbolic degenerate equations, SIAM J. Control Optim., 52 (2014), 2037-2054. doi: 10.1137/120901374. Google Scholar

[23]

V. Hernández-Santamaría and L. de Teresa, Robust Stackelberg controllability for linear and semilinear heat equations, Evol. Equ. Control Theory, 7 (2018), 247-273. doi: 10.3934/eect.2018012. Google Scholar

[24]

V. Komornik and P. Loreti, Fourier Series in Control Theory, Springer Science & Business Media, 2005. Google Scholar

[25]

L. Landau, Bessel functions: Monotonicity and bounds, Journal of the London Mathematical Society, 61 (2000), 197-215. doi: 10.1112/S0024610799008352. Google Scholar

[26]

N. N. Lebedev and R. A. Silverman, Special Functions and Their Applications, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1965 Google Scholar

[27]

L. Lorch and M. E. Muldoon, Monotonic sequences related to zeros of Bessel functions, Numerical Algorithms, 49 (2008), 221-233. doi: 10.1007/s11075-008-9189-4. Google Scholar

[28]

P. Martinez and J. Vancostenoble, The cost of boundary controllability for a parabolic equation with inverse square potential, Submitted.Google Scholar

[29]

P. Martinez and J. Vancostenoble, Carleman estimates for one-dimensional degenerate heat equations, J. Evol. Equ., 6 (2006), 325-362. doi: 10.1007/s00028-006-0214-6. Google Scholar

[30]

J. Vancostenoble, Improved Hardy-Poincaré inequalities and sharp Carleman estimates for degenerate/singular parabolic problems, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. Ser. S, 4 (2011), 761-790. doi: 10.3934/dcdss.2011.4.761. Google Scholar

[31]

J. Vancostenoble and E. Zuazua, Null controllability for the heat equation with singular inverse-square potentials, J. Funct. Anal., 254 (2008), 1864-1902. doi: 10.1016/j.jfa.2007.12.015. Google Scholar

[32]

J. Vancostenoble and E. Zuazua, Hardy inequalities, observability, and control for the wave and Schrödinger equations with singular potentials, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 41 (2009), 1508-1532. doi: 10.1137/080731396. Google Scholar

[33]

J. L. Vázquez and E. Zuazua, The Hardy inequality and the asymptotic behaviour of the heat equation with an inverse-square potential, J. Funct. Anal., 173 (2000), 103-153. doi: 10.1006/jfan.1999.3556. Google Scholar

[34]

G. N. Watson, A Treatise on the Theory of Bessel Functions, Cambridge university press, 1995.Google Scholar

show all references

References:
[1]

F. ArarunaE. Fernández-Cara and M. Santos, Stackelberg-Nash exact controllability for linear and semilinear parabolic equations, ESAIM: COCV, 21 (2015), 835-856. doi: 10.1051/cocv/2014052. Google Scholar

[2]

P. Baras and J. A. Goldstein, The heat equation with a singular potential, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 284 (1984), 121-139. doi: 10.1090/S0002-9947-1984-0742415-3. Google Scholar

[3]

H. Berestycki and M. J. Esteban, Existence and bifurcation of solutions for an elliptic degenerate problem, J. Differential Equations, 134 (1997), 1-25. doi: 10.1006/jdeq.1996.3165. Google Scholar

[4]

U. Biccari and E. Zuazua, Null controllability for a heat equation with a singular inverse-square potential involving the distance to the boundary function, J. Differential Equations, 261 (2016), 2809-2853. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2016.05.019. Google Scholar

[5]

P. CannarsaP. Martinez and J. Vancostenoble, Null controllability of degenerate heat equations, Adv. Diff. Eq., 10 (2005), 153-190. Google Scholar

[6]

P. CannarsaP. Martinez and J. Vancostenoble, Carleman estimates for a class of degenerate parabolic operators, SIAM J. Control Optim., 47 (2008), 1-19. doi: 10.1137/04062062X. Google Scholar

[7]

P. Cannarsa, P. Martinez and J. Vancostenoble, Global Carleman Estimates for Degenerate Parabolic Operators with Applications, vol. 239. American Mathematical Society, 2016. doi: 10.1090/memo/1133. Google Scholar

[8]

P. CannarsaP. Martinez and J. Vancostenoble, The cost of controlling weakly degenerate parabolic equations by boundary controls, Mat. Control Relat. Fields, 7 (2017), 171-211. doi: 10.3934/mcrf.2017006. Google Scholar

[9]

P. Cannarsa, P. Martinez and J. Vancostenoble, Precise estimates for biorthogonal families under asymptotic gap conditions, arXiv preprint, arXiv: 1706.02435, (2017).Google Scholar

[10]

P. Cannarsa, P. Martinez and J. Vancostenoble, The cost of controlling strongly degenerate parabolic equations, Indiana Univ. Math. J., 49 (2000), 815-818, arXiv: 1801.01380. doi: 10.1512/iumj.2000.49.2110. Google Scholar

[11]

P. CannarsaJ. Tort and M. Yamamoto, Unique continuation and approximate controllability for a degenerate parabolic equation, Appl. Anal., 91 (2012), 1409-1425. doi: 10.1080/00036811.2011.639766. Google Scholar

[12]

C. Cazacu, Schrödinger operators with boundary singularities: Hardy inequality, Pohozaev identity and controllability results, J. Funct. Anal., 263 (2012), 3741-3783. doi: 10.1016/j.jfa.2012.09.006. Google Scholar

[13]

C. Cazacu, Controllability of the heat equation with an inverse-square potential localized on the boundary, SIAM J. Control Optim., 52 (2014), 2055-2089. doi: 10.1137/120862557. Google Scholar

[14]

S. Ervedoza, Control and stabilization properties for a singular heat equation with an inverse-square potential, Comm. Part. Diff. Eq., 33 (2008), 1996-2019. doi: 10.1080/03605300802402633. Google Scholar

[15]

H. O. Fattorini and D. L. Russell, Exact controllability theorems for linear parabolic equations in one space dimension, Arch. Rat. Mech. Anal., 43 (1971), 272-292. doi: 10.1007/BF00250466. Google Scholar

[16]

H. O. Fattorini and D. L. Russell, Uniform bounds on biorthogonal functions for real exponentials with an application to the control theory of parabolic equations, Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, 32 (1974), 45-69. doi: 10.1090/qam/510972. Google Scholar

[17]

E. Fernández-CaraM. González-Burgos and L. de Teresa, Boundary controllability of parabolic coupled equations, J. Funct. Anal., 259 (2010), 1720-1758. doi: 10.1016/j.jfa.2010.06.003. Google Scholar

[18]

E. Fernández-Cara and E. Zuazua, The cost of approximate controllability for heat equations: The linear case, Adv. Differ. Equ., 5 (2000), 465-514. Google Scholar

[19]

E. Fernández-Cara and E. Zuazua, Null and approximate controllability for weakly blowing up semilinear heat equations, In Ann. Inst. H. Poincarè Anal. Non Linèaire, 17 (2000), 583-616. doi: 10.1016/S0294-1449(00)00117-7. Google Scholar

[20]

J. Garcia Azorero and I. Peral Alonso, Hardy inequalities and some critical elliptic and parabolic problems, J. Differential Equations, 144 (1998), 441-476. doi: 10.1006/jdeq.1997.3375. Google Scholar

[21]

P. R. GiriK. S. GuptaS. Meljanac and A. Samsarov, Electron capture and scaling anomaly in polar molecules, Phys. Lett. A, 372 (2008), 2967-2970. Google Scholar

[22]

M. Gueye, Exact boundary controllability of 1-D parabolic and hyperbolic degenerate equations, SIAM J. Control Optim., 52 (2014), 2037-2054. doi: 10.1137/120901374. Google Scholar

[23]

V. Hernández-Santamaría and L. de Teresa, Robust Stackelberg controllability for linear and semilinear heat equations, Evol. Equ. Control Theory, 7 (2018), 247-273. doi: 10.3934/eect.2018012. Google Scholar

[24]

V. Komornik and P. Loreti, Fourier Series in Control Theory, Springer Science & Business Media, 2005. Google Scholar

[25]

L. Landau, Bessel functions: Monotonicity and bounds, Journal of the London Mathematical Society, 61 (2000), 197-215. doi: 10.1112/S0024610799008352. Google Scholar

[26]

N. N. Lebedev and R. A. Silverman, Special Functions and Their Applications, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1965 Google Scholar

[27]

L. Lorch and M. E. Muldoon, Monotonic sequences related to zeros of Bessel functions, Numerical Algorithms, 49 (2008), 221-233. doi: 10.1007/s11075-008-9189-4. Google Scholar

[28]

P. Martinez and J. Vancostenoble, The cost of boundary controllability for a parabolic equation with inverse square potential, Submitted.Google Scholar

[29]

P. Martinez and J. Vancostenoble, Carleman estimates for one-dimensional degenerate heat equations, J. Evol. Equ., 6 (2006), 325-362. doi: 10.1007/s00028-006-0214-6. Google Scholar

[30]

J. Vancostenoble, Improved Hardy-Poincaré inequalities and sharp Carleman estimates for degenerate/singular parabolic problems, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. Ser. S, 4 (2011), 761-790. doi: 10.3934/dcdss.2011.4.761. Google Scholar

[31]

J. Vancostenoble and E. Zuazua, Null controllability for the heat equation with singular inverse-square potentials, J. Funct. Anal., 254 (2008), 1864-1902. doi: 10.1016/j.jfa.2007.12.015. Google Scholar

[32]

J. Vancostenoble and E. Zuazua, Hardy inequalities, observability, and control for the wave and Schrödinger equations with singular potentials, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 41 (2009), 1508-1532. doi: 10.1137/080731396. Google Scholar

[33]

J. L. Vázquez and E. Zuazua, The Hardy inequality and the asymptotic behaviour of the heat equation with an inverse-square potential, J. Funct. Anal., 173 (2000), 103-153. doi: 10.1006/jfan.1999.3556. Google Scholar

[34]

G. N. Watson, A Treatise on the Theory of Bessel Functions, Cambridge university press, 1995.Google Scholar

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