2012, 2(4): 655-668. doi: 10.3934/naco.2012.2.655

Gradient estimates for Gaussian distribution functions: application to probabilistically constrained optimization problems

1. 

Weierstrass Institute Berlin, Mohrenstr. 39, 10117 Berlin, Germany

Received  January 2012 Revised  September 2012 Published  November 2012

We provide lower estimates for the norm of gradients of Gaussian distribution functions and apply the results obtained to a special class of probabilistically constrained optimization problems. In particular, it is shown how the precision of computing gradients in such problems can be controlled by the precision of function values for Gaussian distribution functions. Moreover, a sensitivity result for optimal values with respect to perturbations of the underlying random vector is derived. It is shown that the so-called maximal increasing slope of the optimal value with respect to the Kolmogorov distance between original and perturbed distribution can be estimated explicitly from the input data of the problem.
Citation: René Henrion. Gradient estimates for Gaussian distribution functions: application to probabilistically constrained optimization problems. Numerical Algebra, Control & Optimization, 2012, 2 (4) : 655-668. doi: 10.3934/naco.2012.2.655
References:
[1]

I. Deák, Subroutines for computing normal probabilities of sets - computer experiences,, Ann. Oper. Res., 100 (2000), 103.  doi: 10.1023/A:1019215116991.  Google Scholar

[2]

E. De Giorgi, A. Marino and M. Tosques, Problems of evolution in metric spaces and maximal decreasing curve,, Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei Rend. Cl. Sci. Fis .Mat. Natur. (8), 68 (1980), 180.   Google Scholar

[3]

M. Fabian, R. Henrion, A. Kruger and J. Outrata, Error bounds: necessary and sufficient conditions,, Set-Valued Var. Anal., 18 (2010), 121.   Google Scholar

[4]

J. Garnier, A. Omrane and Y. Rouchdy, Asymptotic formulas for the derivatives of probability functions and their monte carlo estimations,, European J. Oper. Res., 198 (2009), 848.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2008.09.026.  Google Scholar

[5]

A. Genz and F. Bretz, "Computation of Multivariate Mormal and Probabilities,", Lecture Notes in Statist., 195 (2009).   Google Scholar

[6]

R. Henrion and W. Römisch, Metric regularity and quantitative stability in stochastic programs with probabilistic constraints,, Math. Program., 84 (1999), 55.   Google Scholar

[7]

R. Henrion, Qualitative stability of convex programs with probabilistic constraints,, Lecture Notes in Econom. and Math. Systems, 481 (2000), 164.   Google Scholar

[8]

R. Henrion, Perturbation analysis of chance-constrained programs under variation of all constraint data,, Lecture Notes in Econom. and Math. Systems, 532 (2004), 257.   Google Scholar

[9]

R. Henrion and W. Römisch, Hölder and Lipschitz Stability of solution sets in programs with probabilistic constraints,, Math. Program., 100 (2004), 589.  doi: 10.1007/s10107-004-0507-x.  Google Scholar

[10]

A. D. Ioffe, Metric regularity and subdifferential calculus,, Russian Math. Surveys, 55 (2000), 501.  doi: 10.1070/RM2000v055n03ABEH000292.  Google Scholar

[11]

K. Marti, Differentiation of probability functions: the transformation method,, Comput. Math. Appl., 30 (1995), 361.  doi: 10.1016/0898-1221(95)00113-1.  Google Scholar

[12]

N. Olieman and B. van Putten, Estimation method of multivariate exponential probabilities based on a simplex coordinates transform,, J. Stat. Comput. Simul., 80 (2010), 355.  doi: 10.1080/00949650802641833.  Google Scholar

[13]

G. Pflug and H. Weisshaupt, Probability gradient estimation by set-valued calculus and applications in network design,, SIAM J. Optim., 15 (2005), 898.  doi: 10.1137/S1052623403431639.  Google Scholar

[14]

A. Prékopa, "Stochastic Programming,", Kluwer, (1995).   Google Scholar

[15]

A. Prékopa, Probabilistic programming,, in, 10 (2003), 267.   Google Scholar

[16]

W. Römisch, Stability of stochastic programming problems,, in, 10 (2003), 483.   Google Scholar

[17]

A. Shapiro, D. Dentcheva and A. Ruszczyński, "Lectures on Stochastic Programming,", MPS/SIAM Ser. Optim., 9 (2009).   Google Scholar

[18]

T. Szántai, A computer code for solution of probabilistic constrained stochastic programming problems,, in, (1988), 229.   Google Scholar

[19]

T. Szántai, Evaluation of a special multivariate gamma distribution,, Math. Program. Study, 27 (1986), 1.  doi: 10.1007/BFb0121111.  Google Scholar

[20]

T. Szántai, Improved bounds and simulation procedures on the value of the multivariate normal probability distribution function,, Ann. Oper. Res., 100 (2000), 85.  doi: 10.1023/A:1019211000153.  Google Scholar

[21]

S. Uryasev, Derivatives of probability functions and some applications,, Ann. Oper. Res., 56 (1995), 287.  doi: 10.1007/BF02031712.  Google Scholar

show all references

References:
[1]

I. Deák, Subroutines for computing normal probabilities of sets - computer experiences,, Ann. Oper. Res., 100 (2000), 103.  doi: 10.1023/A:1019215116991.  Google Scholar

[2]

E. De Giorgi, A. Marino and M. Tosques, Problems of evolution in metric spaces and maximal decreasing curve,, Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei Rend. Cl. Sci. Fis .Mat. Natur. (8), 68 (1980), 180.   Google Scholar

[3]

M. Fabian, R. Henrion, A. Kruger and J. Outrata, Error bounds: necessary and sufficient conditions,, Set-Valued Var. Anal., 18 (2010), 121.   Google Scholar

[4]

J. Garnier, A. Omrane and Y. Rouchdy, Asymptotic formulas for the derivatives of probability functions and their monte carlo estimations,, European J. Oper. Res., 198 (2009), 848.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2008.09.026.  Google Scholar

[5]

A. Genz and F. Bretz, "Computation of Multivariate Mormal and Probabilities,", Lecture Notes in Statist., 195 (2009).   Google Scholar

[6]

R. Henrion and W. Römisch, Metric regularity and quantitative stability in stochastic programs with probabilistic constraints,, Math. Program., 84 (1999), 55.   Google Scholar

[7]

R. Henrion, Qualitative stability of convex programs with probabilistic constraints,, Lecture Notes in Econom. and Math. Systems, 481 (2000), 164.   Google Scholar

[8]

R. Henrion, Perturbation analysis of chance-constrained programs under variation of all constraint data,, Lecture Notes in Econom. and Math. Systems, 532 (2004), 257.   Google Scholar

[9]

R. Henrion and W. Römisch, Hölder and Lipschitz Stability of solution sets in programs with probabilistic constraints,, Math. Program., 100 (2004), 589.  doi: 10.1007/s10107-004-0507-x.  Google Scholar

[10]

A. D. Ioffe, Metric regularity and subdifferential calculus,, Russian Math. Surveys, 55 (2000), 501.  doi: 10.1070/RM2000v055n03ABEH000292.  Google Scholar

[11]

K. Marti, Differentiation of probability functions: the transformation method,, Comput. Math. Appl., 30 (1995), 361.  doi: 10.1016/0898-1221(95)00113-1.  Google Scholar

[12]

N. Olieman and B. van Putten, Estimation method of multivariate exponential probabilities based on a simplex coordinates transform,, J. Stat. Comput. Simul., 80 (2010), 355.  doi: 10.1080/00949650802641833.  Google Scholar

[13]

G. Pflug and H. Weisshaupt, Probability gradient estimation by set-valued calculus and applications in network design,, SIAM J. Optim., 15 (2005), 898.  doi: 10.1137/S1052623403431639.  Google Scholar

[14]

A. Prékopa, "Stochastic Programming,", Kluwer, (1995).   Google Scholar

[15]

A. Prékopa, Probabilistic programming,, in, 10 (2003), 267.   Google Scholar

[16]

W. Römisch, Stability of stochastic programming problems,, in, 10 (2003), 483.   Google Scholar

[17]

A. Shapiro, D. Dentcheva and A. Ruszczyński, "Lectures on Stochastic Programming,", MPS/SIAM Ser. Optim., 9 (2009).   Google Scholar

[18]

T. Szántai, A computer code for solution of probabilistic constrained stochastic programming problems,, in, (1988), 229.   Google Scholar

[19]

T. Szántai, Evaluation of a special multivariate gamma distribution,, Math. Program. Study, 27 (1986), 1.  doi: 10.1007/BFb0121111.  Google Scholar

[20]

T. Szántai, Improved bounds and simulation procedures on the value of the multivariate normal probability distribution function,, Ann. Oper. Res., 100 (2000), 85.  doi: 10.1023/A:1019211000153.  Google Scholar

[21]

S. Uryasev, Derivatives of probability functions and some applications,, Ann. Oper. Res., 56 (1995), 287.  doi: 10.1007/BF02031712.  Google Scholar

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