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Force-based models of pedestrian dynamics

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  • Force-based models describe the interactions of pedestrians in terms of physical and social forces. We discuss some intrinsic problems of this approach, like penetration of particles, unrealistic oscillations and velocities as well as conceptual problems related to violations of Newton's laws. We then present the generalized centrifugal force model which solves some of these problems. Furthermore we discuss the problem of choosing a realistic driving force to an exit. We illustrate this problem by investigating the behaviour of pedestrians at bottlenecks.
    Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary: 82C22, 97M99; Secondary: 990B20.


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