March  2015, 10(1): 167-194. doi: 10.3934/nhm.2015.10.167

Complexity, selectivity and asymmetry in the conformation of the power phenomenon. Analysis of Chilean society

1. 

Inria-Chile, Apoquindo 2827, Piso 12. Las Condes, Santiago, Chile

2. 

Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Centro de Estudios y Asistencia Legislativa-CEAL, Avenida Brasil, 2950, Valparaíso, Chile

3. 

Instituto de Sistemas Complejos de Valparaíso, Subida Artillería 470, Valparaíso, Chile

Received  June 2014 Revised  November 2014 Published  February 2015

In this work we analyzed the relationships between powerful politicians and businessmen of Chile in order to study the phenomenon of social power. We developed our study according to Complex Network Theory but also using traditional sociological theories of Power and Elites. Our analyses suggest that the studied network displays common properties of Complex Networks, such as scaling in connectivity distribution, properties of small-world networks, and modular structure, among others. We also observed that social power (a proposed metric is presented in this work) is also distributed inhomogeneously. However, the most interesting observation is that this inhomogeneous power and connectivity distribution, among other observed properties, may be the result of a dynamic and unregulated process of network growth in which powerful people tend to link to similar others. The compatibility between people, increasingly selective as the network grows, could generate the presence of extremely powerful people, but also a constant inequality of power where the difference between the most powerful is the same as among the least powerful. Our results are also in accordance with sociological theories.
Citation: Juan Pablo Cárdenas, Gerardo Vidal, Gastón Olivares. Complexity, selectivity and asymmetry in the conformation of the power phenomenon. Analysis of Chilean society. Networks & Heterogeneous Media, 2015, 10 (1) : 167-194. doi: 10.3934/nhm.2015.10.167
References:
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J. P. Cárdenas, M. Mouronte, J. C. Losada and R. M. Benito, Compatibility as underlying mechanism behind the evolution of networks,, Physica A, 389 (2010), 1789. Google Scholar

[17]

R. Dahl, La Poliarquía: Partcipación y Oposición,, Tecnos, (2009). Google Scholar

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W. Kornhauser, The Politics of Mass Society,, Routledge, (1959). Google Scholar

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G. Lenski, Poder y Privilegio. Teoría de la Estratificación Social,, Paidós, (1969). Google Scholar

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R. López, E. Figueroa and P. Gutiérrez, La parte del León: Nuevas estimaciones de la participación de los súper ricos en el ingreso de Chile,, Universidad de Chile, (2013). Google Scholar

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B. Marmuc, Ideología, matemáticas y ciencias sociales, W. Pareto y G. Sorel y la ambigüedad en la comparación de las desigualdades,, Revista de Metodología de Ciencias Sociales, 5 (2013), 11. Google Scholar

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A. Mayol, El Derrumbe del Modelo,, LOM, (2013). Google Scholar

[35]

M. Mitchell, Complexity. A Guided Tour,, Oxford University Press, (2003). Google Scholar

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R. Michels, Los Partidos Políticos,, Amorrortu, (1976). Google Scholar

[37]

W. Mills, La Elite del Poder,, $9^{th}$ edition, (1988). Google Scholar

[38]

J. Molina-Cano, Las nociones de mando y obediencia en la teoría política de Julien Freund,, Díkaion, 23 (2009). Google Scholar

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G. Mosca, La Clase Política,, $2^{nd}$ edition, (1980). Google Scholar

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G. Mosca, Elementi di Scienza Politica,, Reproduction of the original version. Available from: , (). Google Scholar

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J. Nahapiet and S. Ghoshal, Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organization advantage,, The Academy of Management Review, 23 (1998), 242. Google Scholar

[42]

P. Navarro, El Fenómeno de la Complejidad Social Humana,, Curso de Doctorado Interdisciplinar en Sistemas Complejos, (1996). Google Scholar

[43]

M. E. J. Newman, The structure and functions of complex networks,, SIAM Review, 45 (2003), 167. doi: 10.1137/S003614450342480. Google Scholar

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M. E. J. Newman, A.-L. Barabási and D. Watts, The Structure and Dynamics of Networks,, Princeton University Press, (2006). Google Scholar

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M. E. J. Newman, Assortativity mixing in networks,, Physical Review Letters, 89 (2002). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.208701. Google Scholar

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P. Nocera, El debate Gabriel Tarde y Emile Durkheim. De las disparidades iniciales explícitas a las convergencias tardías implícitas., Available from: , (). Google Scholar

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W. Pareto, Reseña de su Obra,, Socio-Ciencia, (2009). Google Scholar

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PNUD-Chile, La Élite Chilena y la Difícil Conducción del Desarrollo,, PNUD, (2004). Google Scholar

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H. Rheingold, Multitudes Inteligentes,, Gedisa, (2004). Google Scholar

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G. Ritzer, Teoría Sociológica Clásica,, $1^{st}$ edition, (1920). Google Scholar

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G. Ritzer, Teoría Sociológica Contemporánea,, McGraw-Hill, (1994). Google Scholar

[54]

G. Ritzer, Teoría Sociológica Clásica,, McGraw-Hill, (1994). Google Scholar

[55]

P. Rodrigo and D. Arenas, La nueva gobernanza política y las colaboraciones intersectoriales para el desarrollo sostenible,, Innovar, 24 (2014), 197. doi: 10.15446/innovar.v24n53.43945. Google Scholar

[56]

G. Runciman, Crítica de la Filosofía de las Ciencias Sociales de Max Weber,, Fondo de Cultura Económica, (1976). Google Scholar

[57]

F. Sanchez López, Sociología de la Acción. Introducción a la obra de Talcott Parsons,, Instituto Balmes de Sociología, (1964). Google Scholar

[58]

R. Sole, Redes Complejas. Del Genoma a Internet,, Tusquets Eds., (2009). Google Scholar

[59]

N. N. Taleb, The Black Swan,, Random House, (2010). Google Scholar

[60]

R. Thom, Esbozo de una Semiofísica. Física Aristotélica y Teoría de las Catástrofes,, Gedisa, (1990). Google Scholar

[61]

J. Touchard, Historia de las Ideas Políticas,, Tecnos, (1987). Google Scholar

[62]

G. Vidal, Chile Ante una Encrucijada?,, 2011. Available from: , (). Google Scholar

[63]

D. J. Watts and S. H. Strogatz, Collective dynamics of small-world networks,, Nature, 393 (1998), 440. Google Scholar

[64]

M. Weber, Economía y Sociedad,, Fondo de Cultura Económica, (1964). Google Scholar

show all references

References:
[1]

P. S. Adler and S. W. Kwon, Social Capital: Prospects for a new concept,, The Academy of Management Review, 27 (2002), 17. doi: 10.2307/4134367. Google Scholar

[2]

J. Alonso, Pareto, $1^{st}$ edition,, Edicol, (1977). Google Scholar

[3]

J. Alstott, E. Bullmore and D. Plenz, Powerlaw: A python package for analysis of heavy-tailed distributions,, preprint, (). Google Scholar

[4]

F. Alvaredo, A. B. Atkinson, T. Piketty and E. Saez, The top 1 percent in international and historical perspective,, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 27 (2013), 3. doi: 10.1257/jep.27.3.3. Google Scholar

[5]

G. Álvarez, Caos/Complejidad, Fractales e Identidades sociales,, Razón y Palabra, 79 (2012). Google Scholar

[6]

R. Aron, La Sociología Alemana Contemporánea,, Paidós, (1965). Google Scholar

[7]

P. Ball, Critical Mass,, Farrar, (2004). Google Scholar

[8]

A.-L. Barabási and R. Albert, Emergence of scaling in random networks,, Science, 286 (1999), 509. doi: 10.1126/science.286.5439.509. Google Scholar

[9]

J. A. Barbier, Elite and cadres in bourbon Chile,, The Hispanic American Historical Review, 52 (1972), 416. doi: 10.2307/2512001. Google Scholar

[10]

J. Bascompte and B. Luque, Evolución y Complejidad,, Publicacions de la Universitat de Valéncia, (2012). Google Scholar

[11]

J. Bascompte and P. Jordano, Plant-animal mutualistic networks: the architecture of biodiversity,, Anual Review of Ecology, 38 (2007), 567. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.38.091206.095818. Google Scholar

[12]

R. Bendix, Max Weber and Intellectual Portrait,, Doubleday & Company, (1962). Google Scholar

[13]

L. von Bertalanffy, Teoría General de los Sistemas,, México, (1991). Google Scholar

[14]

V. D. Blondel, J.-L. Guillaume, R. Lambiotte and E. Lefebvre, Fast unfolding of communities in large networks,, Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiments, 2008 (2008). Google Scholar

[15]

M. Buchanan, Ubiquity,, Three River Press, (2000). Google Scholar

[16]

J. P. Cárdenas, M. Mouronte, J. C. Losada and R. M. Benito, Compatibility as underlying mechanism behind the evolution of networks,, Physica A, 389 (2010), 1789. Google Scholar

[17]

R. Dahl, La Poliarquía: Partcipación y Oposición,, Tecnos, (2009). Google Scholar

[18]

R. Dahrendorf, La Ley y el Orden,, $1^{st}$ edition, (1994). Google Scholar

[19]

S. Deploigé, El Conflicto de la Moral y de la Sociología,, McGraw-Hill, (1920). Google Scholar

[20]

S. N. Dorogovtsev and J. F. F. Mendes, Evolution of Networks. From Biological Nets to the Internet and WWW,, Oxford University Press, (2003). doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515906.001.0001. Google Scholar

[21]

E. Durkheim, Las Reglas del Método Sociológico,, Dedalo, (1964). Google Scholar

[22]

P. Erdős and A. Rényi, On random graphs,, Publicationes Mathematicae (Debrecen), 6 (1959), 290. Google Scholar

[23]

M. Foucault, Microfísica del Poder,, $2^{nd}$ edition, (1980). Google Scholar

[24]

O. González del Cardenal, El Poder y la Conciencia. Rostros Personales Frente a Poderes An\'onimos,, $2^{nd}$ edition, (1985). Google Scholar

[25]

M. S. Granovetter, The strength of weak ties,, American Journal of Sociology, 78 (1973), 1360. doi: 10.1086/225469. Google Scholar

[26]

F. Harary, R. Norman and D. Cartwright, Structural Models,, Wiley, (1965). Google Scholar

[27]

P. Klimek, R. Lambiotte and S. Thurner, Opinion formation in laggard societies,, Europhysics Letters, 82 (2008). doi: 10.1209/0295-5075/82/28008. Google Scholar

[28]

W. Kornhauser, The Politics of Mass Society,, Routledge, (1959). Google Scholar

[29]

E. Laszlo, La Gran Bifurcación. Crisis y Oportunidad; Anticipación del Nuevo Paradigma que Está Tomando Forma,, Gedisa, (1990). Google Scholar

[30]

G. Lenski, Poder y Privilegio. Teoría de la Estratificación Social,, Paidós, (1969). Google Scholar

[31]

R. López, E. Figueroa and P. Gutiérrez, La parte del León: Nuevas estimaciones de la participación de los súper ricos en el ingreso de Chile,, Universidad de Chile, (2013). Google Scholar

[32]

C. Maldonado, Complejidad y ciencias sociales. el problema de la medición de los sistemas sociales humanos,, Complejidad de las ciencias y ciencias de la complejidad, (2006), 1. Google Scholar

[33]

B. Marmuc, Ideología, matemáticas y ciencias sociales, W. Pareto y G. Sorel y la ambigüedad en la comparación de las desigualdades,, Revista de Metodología de Ciencias Sociales, 5 (2013), 11. Google Scholar

[34]

A. Mayol, El Derrumbe del Modelo,, LOM, (2013). Google Scholar

[35]

M. Mitchell, Complexity. A Guided Tour,, Oxford University Press, (2003). Google Scholar

[36]

R. Michels, Los Partidos Políticos,, Amorrortu, (1976). Google Scholar

[37]

W. Mills, La Elite del Poder,, $9^{th}$ edition, (1988). Google Scholar

[38]

J. Molina-Cano, Las nociones de mando y obediencia en la teoría política de Julien Freund,, Díkaion, 23 (2009). Google Scholar

[39]

G. Mosca, La Clase Política,, $2^{nd}$ edition, (1980). Google Scholar

[40]

G. Mosca, Elementi di Scienza Politica,, Reproduction of the original version. Available from: , (). Google Scholar

[41]

J. Nahapiet and S. Ghoshal, Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organization advantage,, The Academy of Management Review, 23 (1998), 242. Google Scholar

[42]

P. Navarro, El Fenómeno de la Complejidad Social Humana,, Curso de Doctorado Interdisciplinar en Sistemas Complejos, (1996). Google Scholar

[43]

M. E. J. Newman, The structure and functions of complex networks,, SIAM Review, 45 (2003), 167. doi: 10.1137/S003614450342480. Google Scholar

[44]

M. E. J. Newman, A.-L. Barabási and D. Watts, The Structure and Dynamics of Networks,, Princeton University Press, (2006). Google Scholar

[45]

M. E. J. Newman, Assortativity mixing in networks,, Physical Review Letters, 89 (2002). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.208701. Google Scholar

[46]

P. Nocera, El debate Gabriel Tarde y Emile Durkheim. De las disparidades iniciales explícitas a las convergencias tardías implícitas., Available from: , (). Google Scholar

[47]

L. Page, S. Brin, R. Motwani and T. Winograd, The PageRank citation ranking: Bringing order to the Web,, 1999. Available from: , (): 1999. Google Scholar

[48]

W. Pareto, Reseña de su Obra,, Socio-Ciencia, (2009). Google Scholar

[49]

T. Parsons and E. Shils, Toward a General Theory of Action,, Harper & Row Publishers, (1962). doi: 10.4159/harvard.9780674863507. Google Scholar

[50]

PNUD-Chile, La Élite Chilena y la Difícil Conducción del Desarrollo,, PNUD, (2004). Google Scholar

[51]

H. Rheingold, Multitudes Inteligentes,, Gedisa, (2004). Google Scholar

[52]

G. Ritzer, Teoría Sociológica Clásica,, $1^{st}$ edition, (1920). Google Scholar

[53]

G. Ritzer, Teoría Sociológica Contemporánea,, McGraw-Hill, (1994). Google Scholar

[54]

G. Ritzer, Teoría Sociológica Clásica,, McGraw-Hill, (1994). Google Scholar

[55]

P. Rodrigo and D. Arenas, La nueva gobernanza política y las colaboraciones intersectoriales para el desarrollo sostenible,, Innovar, 24 (2014), 197. doi: 10.15446/innovar.v24n53.43945. Google Scholar

[56]

G. Runciman, Crítica de la Filosofía de las Ciencias Sociales de Max Weber,, Fondo de Cultura Económica, (1976). Google Scholar

[57]

F. Sanchez López, Sociología de la Acción. Introducción a la obra de Talcott Parsons,, Instituto Balmes de Sociología, (1964). Google Scholar

[58]

R. Sole, Redes Complejas. Del Genoma a Internet,, Tusquets Eds., (2009). Google Scholar

[59]

N. N. Taleb, The Black Swan,, Random House, (2010). Google Scholar

[60]

R. Thom, Esbozo de una Semiofísica. Física Aristotélica y Teoría de las Catástrofes,, Gedisa, (1990). Google Scholar

[61]

J. Touchard, Historia de las Ideas Políticas,, Tecnos, (1987). Google Scholar

[62]

G. Vidal, Chile Ante una Encrucijada?,, 2011. Available from: , (). Google Scholar

[63]

D. J. Watts and S. H. Strogatz, Collective dynamics of small-world networks,, Nature, 393 (1998), 440. Google Scholar

[64]

M. Weber, Economía y Sociedad,, Fondo de Cultura Económica, (1964). Google Scholar

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