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Modeling HIV: Determining the factors affecting the racial disparity in the prevalence of infected women
1.  Department of Mathematics, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, United States 
2.  Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250, United States, United States 
References:
[1] 
, CDC FAST STATS,, , (). 
[2] 
U.L. Abbas, R. Glaubius, A. Mubayi, G. Hood and J.W. Mellors., Antiretroviral therapy and preexposure prophylaxis: combined impact on HIV transmission and drug resistance in South Africa, Journal of Infectious Diseases, 208 (2013), 224234. 
[3] 
R. M. Anderson and R. M. May., Infectious Diseases of Humans, Oxford Science Publications, U.K., 1991. 
[4] 
C. CastilloChávez., Mathematical and Statistical Approaches to AIDS Epidemiology, Lecture Notes in Biomathematics, 83, 1989. 
[5] 
D. D. Celentano, F. Sifakis, J. Hylton, L. V. Torian, V. Guillin and B. A. Koblin., Race/ethnic differences in HIV prevalence and risks among adolescent and young adult men who have sex with men, Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 82 (2005) 4, 610621. 
[6] 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention., HIV transmission among black college student and nonstudent men who have sex with men  North Carolina, 2003, Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report, 53 (2004) 32, 731734. 
[7] 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention., HIV/AIDS surveillance report, 2005, Technical report, 17 (2007). 
[8] 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention., HIV surveillance supplemental report, 2010, Technical report, 17 (2012) 4. 
[9] 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention., HIV surveillance supplemental report, 2010, Technical report, 18 (2013) 5. 
[10] 
J. P. Gabriel, C. Lefevre and C. Picard., Stochastic Processes in Epidemic Theory, Lecture Notes in Biomathematics, 90, 1990. 
[11] 
G.P. Garnett and R.P. Anderson., Balancing sexual partners in an age and activity stratified model of HIV transmission in heterosexual populations, IMA Journal of Mathematics Applied in Medicine and Biology, 11 (1994), 161192. 
[12] 
J. M. Hyman, J. Li and E. A. Stanley., The differential infectivity and staged progression models for the transmission of HIV, Mathematical Biosciences, 155 (1999), 77109. 
[13] 
K.P. Hadeler and C. CastilloChávez., A core group model for disease transmission, Mathematical Biosciences, 128 (1995) 1, 4155. 
[14] 
D.J. Malebranche., Bisexually active black men in the United States and HIV: Acknowledging more than the "Down Low", Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37 (2008) 5, 810816. 
[15] 
M. May, M. Gompels, V. Delpech, K Porter, F Poct, M Johnson, D Dinn, A Palfreeman, R Gilson, B Gazzard, T Hill, J Walsh, M Fisher, C Orkin, J Ainsworth, L Bansi, A Phillips, C Leen, M Nelson, J Anderson and C Sabin., Impact of late diagnosis and treatment on life expectancy in people with HIV1: UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) Study, BMJ, (2011), 343354. 
[16] 
W.D. Mosher, A. Chandra and J. Jones., Sexual behavior and selected health measures: men and women 1544 years of age, United States, 2002, Adv. Data., 362 (2005), 155. 
[17] 
Z. Mukandavire and W. Garira., Age and sex structured model for assessing the demographic impact of mothertochild transmission of HIV/AIDS, Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 69 (2007) 6, 20612092. 
[18] 
F. Nakagawa, R.K. Lodwick, C.J. Smith, R. SSmith, V. Cambiano, J.D. Lundgren, V. Delpech and A.N. Phillips., Projected life expectancy of people with HIV according to timing of diagnosis, AIDS, 26 (2012) 3, 335343. 
[19] 
M.E. Newcomb and B Mustanski., Racial differences in samerace partnering and the effects of sexual partnership characteristics on HIV risk in MSM: A prospective sexual diary study, Acquir Immune Defic Syndr., 62 (2013) 3, 329333. 
[20] 
P.L. Patel, C.B. Borkowf, A Lasry, A. Lansky and J. Mermin., Estimating peract HIV transmission risk: a systematic review, AIDS, 10 (2014), 150919. 
[21] 
S.D. Pinkerton and P.R. Abramson., Effectiveness of condoms in preventing HIV transmission, Soc Sci Med., 44 (1997) 9, 130312. 
[22] 
B. Rapatski and J. Yorke., Modeling HIV outbreaks: the male to female prevalence ratio in the core population, Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering, 6 (2009) 1, 135143. 
[23] 
T.G.M Sandfort and B. Dodge., ...And then there was the down low: Introduction to Black and Latino male bisexualities, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37 (2008) 5, 675682. 
[24] 
Z. Shuai, J.A.P. Heesterbeek and P. van den Driessche., Erratum to: "Extending the type reproduction number to infectious disease control targeting contacts between types'', Journal of Mathematical Biology, 71 (2015), 255257. 
[25] 
Z. Shuai, J.A.P. Heesterbeek and P. van den Driessche., Extending the type reproduction number to infectious disease control targeting contacts between types, Journal of Mathematical Biology, 67 (2013), 10671082. 
[26] 
E.K. Thomas, K.F. Gurski and K.A. Hoffman., Analysis of SI Models with multiple interacting populations using subpopulations, Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering, 12 (2015), 13561, doi: 10.3934/mbe.2015.12.135. 
[27] 
C.O. Uche and R. M. Anderson., Mixing matrices: Necessary constraints in populations of finite size, IMA Journal of Mathematics Applied in Medicine and Biology, 13 (1996), 2333. 
[28] 
U.S. Census Bureau., 2000 census of population and housing, summary file 1, Technical report (2001). 
[29] 
U.S. Census Bureau., 2010 census of population and housing, summary file 1, Technical report, (2011). 
[30] 
A. Van Sighem, L. Gras, P. Reiss, K. Brinkman, F. de Wolf and ATHENA national observational cohort study., Life expectancy of recently diagnosed asymptomatic HIVinfected patients approaches that of uninfected individuals, AIDS, 24 (2010), 15271535. 
show all references
References:
[1] 
, CDC FAST STATS,, , (). 
[2] 
U.L. Abbas, R. Glaubius, A. Mubayi, G. Hood and J.W. Mellors., Antiretroviral therapy and preexposure prophylaxis: combined impact on HIV transmission and drug resistance in South Africa, Journal of Infectious Diseases, 208 (2013), 224234. 
[3] 
R. M. Anderson and R. M. May., Infectious Diseases of Humans, Oxford Science Publications, U.K., 1991. 
[4] 
C. CastilloChávez., Mathematical and Statistical Approaches to AIDS Epidemiology, Lecture Notes in Biomathematics, 83, 1989. 
[5] 
D. D. Celentano, F. Sifakis, J. Hylton, L. V. Torian, V. Guillin and B. A. Koblin., Race/ethnic differences in HIV prevalence and risks among adolescent and young adult men who have sex with men, Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 82 (2005) 4, 610621. 
[6] 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention., HIV transmission among black college student and nonstudent men who have sex with men  North Carolina, 2003, Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report, 53 (2004) 32, 731734. 
[7] 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention., HIV/AIDS surveillance report, 2005, Technical report, 17 (2007). 
[8] 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention., HIV surveillance supplemental report, 2010, Technical report, 17 (2012) 4. 
[9] 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention., HIV surveillance supplemental report, 2010, Technical report, 18 (2013) 5. 
[10] 
J. P. Gabriel, C. Lefevre and C. Picard., Stochastic Processes in Epidemic Theory, Lecture Notes in Biomathematics, 90, 1990. 
[11] 
G.P. Garnett and R.P. Anderson., Balancing sexual partners in an age and activity stratified model of HIV transmission in heterosexual populations, IMA Journal of Mathematics Applied in Medicine and Biology, 11 (1994), 161192. 
[12] 
J. M. Hyman, J. Li and E. A. Stanley., The differential infectivity and staged progression models for the transmission of HIV, Mathematical Biosciences, 155 (1999), 77109. 
[13] 
K.P. Hadeler and C. CastilloChávez., A core group model for disease transmission, Mathematical Biosciences, 128 (1995) 1, 4155. 
[14] 
D.J. Malebranche., Bisexually active black men in the United States and HIV: Acknowledging more than the "Down Low", Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37 (2008) 5, 810816. 
[15] 
M. May, M. Gompels, V. Delpech, K Porter, F Poct, M Johnson, D Dinn, A Palfreeman, R Gilson, B Gazzard, T Hill, J Walsh, M Fisher, C Orkin, J Ainsworth, L Bansi, A Phillips, C Leen, M Nelson, J Anderson and C Sabin., Impact of late diagnosis and treatment on life expectancy in people with HIV1: UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) Study, BMJ, (2011), 343354. 
[16] 
W.D. Mosher, A. Chandra and J. Jones., Sexual behavior and selected health measures: men and women 1544 years of age, United States, 2002, Adv. Data., 362 (2005), 155. 
[17] 
Z. Mukandavire and W. Garira., Age and sex structured model for assessing the demographic impact of mothertochild transmission of HIV/AIDS, Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 69 (2007) 6, 20612092. 
[18] 
F. Nakagawa, R.K. Lodwick, C.J. Smith, R. SSmith, V. Cambiano, J.D. Lundgren, V. Delpech and A.N. Phillips., Projected life expectancy of people with HIV according to timing of diagnosis, AIDS, 26 (2012) 3, 335343. 
[19] 
M.E. Newcomb and B Mustanski., Racial differences in samerace partnering and the effects of sexual partnership characteristics on HIV risk in MSM: A prospective sexual diary study, Acquir Immune Defic Syndr., 62 (2013) 3, 329333. 
[20] 
P.L. Patel, C.B. Borkowf, A Lasry, A. Lansky and J. Mermin., Estimating peract HIV transmission risk: a systematic review, AIDS, 10 (2014), 150919. 
[21] 
S.D. Pinkerton and P.R. Abramson., Effectiveness of condoms in preventing HIV transmission, Soc Sci Med., 44 (1997) 9, 130312. 
[22] 
B. Rapatski and J. Yorke., Modeling HIV outbreaks: the male to female prevalence ratio in the core population, Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering, 6 (2009) 1, 135143. 
[23] 
T.G.M Sandfort and B. Dodge., ...And then there was the down low: Introduction to Black and Latino male bisexualities, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37 (2008) 5, 675682. 
[24] 
Z. Shuai, J.A.P. Heesterbeek and P. van den Driessche., Erratum to: "Extending the type reproduction number to infectious disease control targeting contacts between types'', Journal of Mathematical Biology, 71 (2015), 255257. 
[25] 
Z. Shuai, J.A.P. Heesterbeek and P. van den Driessche., Extending the type reproduction number to infectious disease control targeting contacts between types, Journal of Mathematical Biology, 67 (2013), 10671082. 
[26] 
E.K. Thomas, K.F. Gurski and K.A. Hoffman., Analysis of SI Models with multiple interacting populations using subpopulations, Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering, 12 (2015), 13561, doi: 10.3934/mbe.2015.12.135. 
[27] 
C.O. Uche and R. M. Anderson., Mixing matrices: Necessary constraints in populations of finite size, IMA Journal of Mathematics Applied in Medicine and Biology, 13 (1996), 2333. 
[28] 
U.S. Census Bureau., 2000 census of population and housing, summary file 1, Technical report (2001). 
[29] 
U.S. Census Bureau., 2010 census of population and housing, summary file 1, Technical report, (2011). 
[30] 
A. Van Sighem, L. Gras, P. Reiss, K. Brinkman, F. de Wolf and ATHENA national observational cohort study., Life expectancy of recently diagnosed asymptomatic HIVinfected patients approaches that of uninfected individuals, AIDS, 24 (2010), 15271535. 
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