February  2021, 1(1): 60-74. doi: 10.3934/steme.2021005

Innovation event model for STEM education: A constructivism perspective

1. 

School of Information Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu, China

2. 

School of Computing and Information Technology, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia

3. 

Education Research Institute of Gansu Province, Lanzhou, Gansu, China

* Correspondence: zhouqg@lzu.edu.cn; Tel: +86-931-8912025

Academic Editor: Ergun Gide

Received  January 2021 Revised  February 2021 Published  February 2021

STEM education aims to cultivate innovative talents by improving students' ability to comprehensively apply interdisciplinary knowledge in solving practical problems. This paper first develops an innovation event model through the analysis of 50 historical innovation events that can be traced back to whole human history. The model divides the realization process of those innovation events into four steps: 1) pointing out a problem, 2) proposing solutions to the problem, 3) concrete implementation of those solutions, and 4) iterative modification process. And then, the relationship between innovation event model and STEM education is established from the perspectives of subject integration and constructivism of STEM education. Based on this model, we can understand some key issues in the implementation of STEM education from a top-down view, including the nature of STEM education, the knowledge integration model, and the relationship between subject-specific education and integrated education. This will help to gradually improve our cognition and understanding of STEM education, so as to achieve its initial goal of integrated and innovative education. This article will contribute to a holistic rethinking about how to renovate STEM education in different levels of schools and colleges, equipped with such an innovation event model.

Citation: Changyan Di, Qingguo Zhou, Jun Shen, Li Li, Rui Zhou, Jiayin Lin. Innovation event model for STEM education: A constructivism perspective. STEM Education, 2021, 1 (1) : 60-74. doi: 10.3934/steme.2021005
References:
[1]

J. KyereJ.M. BreinerS.S. Harkness and C.C. Johnson, What is STEM? A discussion about conceptions of STEM in education and partnerships, School Science and Mathematics, 112 (2012), 3-11.   Google Scholar

[2]

Schumpeter, J., Backhaus, U. (2003) The Theory of Economic Development. In: Backhaus J. (eds) Joseph Alois Schumpeter. The European Heritage in Economics and the Social Sciences, vol 1. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/0-306-48082-4_3 Google Scholar

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Chisholm, H. (1911) Encyclopedia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, and General Information. Cambridge University Press. 1911: 173 Google Scholar

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Wu, J. (2019) A general history of global technology. Beijing: Zhongxin Printing Group. Google Scholar

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Isaacson, W. (2014) The innovators: how a group of hackers, geniuses, and geeks created the digital revolution. New York: Simon and Schuster. Google Scholar

[7]

Johnson, S., Keenan, S. (2018) How we got to now: six innovations that made the modern world. New York: Viking, an imprint of Penguin Random House LLC. Google Scholar

[8]

Kyere, J. (2003) Effectiveness of Hands-on Pedagogy in STEM Education. Walden Dissertations and Doc-total Studies Collection. Available from: https://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4035&context=dissertations Google Scholar

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M. Li, What does constructivism give us?, China Educational Technology, 6 (2002), 10-15.   Google Scholar

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Y. Li, Reflecting the Nature of STEM and Its Practical Problems: An Interview with Professor Samson Nashon at University of British Colombia in Canada, Global Education, 11 (2014), 3-8.   Google Scholar

[11]

J. Morrison and V. Raymond, STEM as a curriculum, Education Week, 23 (2009), 28-31.   Google Scholar

[12]

L. Huang and X. Pei, Thoughts on STEM Education in the Perspective of Scientific Rationalism:Knowledge Consilience, International and Comparative Education, 6 (2018), 23-33.   Google Scholar

[13]

Yang, K., Dou, L., Li, B., Gong, P. (2020) The Dilemma of STEM Education and the Way out of It. Modern Distance Education Re-search. 32 Google Scholar

[14]

S. Chen, Phenomenon Teaching: A New Mode of Educational Reform of Finland in 2016, Education and Teaching Research, 30 (2016), 13-22.   Google Scholar

[15]

Ai, X. (2007) Study on construction curriculum. Xinan University Dissertations. Google Scholar

[16]

National Core Curriculum for Basic Education (2014) National Board of Education. Finland. Google Scholar

[17]

L. Sikma and M. Osborne, Conflicts in developing an elementary STEM magnet school, Theory into Practice, 53 (2014), 4-10.   Google Scholar

[18]

K. Michael, Daugherty. The Prospect of an "A" in STEM Education, Journal of STEM Education, 14 (2013), 11-14.   Google Scholar

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MLA style: Alexis Carrel Biographical. Nobel Prize.org. Available from: https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/1912/carrel/biographical/. Google Scholar

[20]

MLA style: Tu Youyou Biographical. Nobel Prize.org. Available from: https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/1912/carrel/biographical/. Google Scholar

[21]

Virginia Apgar. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Available from: https://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/spotlight/cp/feature/biographical/. Google Scholar

show all references

References:
[1]

J. KyereJ.M. BreinerS.S. Harkness and C.C. Johnson, What is STEM? A discussion about conceptions of STEM in education and partnerships, School Science and Mathematics, 112 (2012), 3-11.   Google Scholar

[2]

Schumpeter, J., Backhaus, U. (2003) The Theory of Economic Development. In: Backhaus J. (eds) Joseph Alois Schumpeter. The European Heritage in Economics and the Social Sciences, vol 1. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/0-306-48082-4_3 Google Scholar

[3]

Balmer, R.T. (2010) Modern Engineering Thermodynamics. Academic Press. Google Scholar

[4]

Chisholm, H. (1911) Encyclopedia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, and General Information. Cambridge University Press. 1911: 173 Google Scholar

[5]

Wu, J. (2019) A general history of global technology. Beijing: Zhongxin Printing Group. Google Scholar

[6]

Isaacson, W. (2014) The innovators: how a group of hackers, geniuses, and geeks created the digital revolution. New York: Simon and Schuster. Google Scholar

[7]

Johnson, S., Keenan, S. (2018) How we got to now: six innovations that made the modern world. New York: Viking, an imprint of Penguin Random House LLC. Google Scholar

[8]

Kyere, J. (2003) Effectiveness of Hands-on Pedagogy in STEM Education. Walden Dissertations and Doc-total Studies Collection. Available from: https://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4035&context=dissertations Google Scholar

[9]

M. Li, What does constructivism give us?, China Educational Technology, 6 (2002), 10-15.   Google Scholar

[10]

Y. Li, Reflecting the Nature of STEM and Its Practical Problems: An Interview with Professor Samson Nashon at University of British Colombia in Canada, Global Education, 11 (2014), 3-8.   Google Scholar

[11]

J. Morrison and V. Raymond, STEM as a curriculum, Education Week, 23 (2009), 28-31.   Google Scholar

[12]

L. Huang and X. Pei, Thoughts on STEM Education in the Perspective of Scientific Rationalism:Knowledge Consilience, International and Comparative Education, 6 (2018), 23-33.   Google Scholar

[13]

Yang, K., Dou, L., Li, B., Gong, P. (2020) The Dilemma of STEM Education and the Way out of It. Modern Distance Education Re-search. 32 Google Scholar

[14]

S. Chen, Phenomenon Teaching: A New Mode of Educational Reform of Finland in 2016, Education and Teaching Research, 30 (2016), 13-22.   Google Scholar

[15]

Ai, X. (2007) Study on construction curriculum. Xinan University Dissertations. Google Scholar

[16]

National Core Curriculum for Basic Education (2014) National Board of Education. Finland. Google Scholar

[17]

L. Sikma and M. Osborne, Conflicts in developing an elementary STEM magnet school, Theory into Practice, 53 (2014), 4-10.   Google Scholar

[18]

K. Michael, Daugherty. The Prospect of an "A" in STEM Education, Journal of STEM Education, 14 (2013), 11-14.   Google Scholar

[19]

MLA style: Alexis Carrel Biographical. Nobel Prize.org. Available from: https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/1912/carrel/biographical/. Google Scholar

[20]

MLA style: Tu Youyou Biographical. Nobel Prize.org. Available from: https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/1912/carrel/biographical/. Google Scholar

[21]

Virginia Apgar. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Available from: https://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/spotlight/cp/feature/biographical/. Google Scholar

Figure 1.  The Innovation Event Model
Figure 2.  A schematic diagram of the structure of knowledge
Figure 3.  Design STEM curricula around students' life experiences
Figure 4.  The mind map of "The Crossroad"
Table  .  LIST OF INNOVATION CASES
Order Invention Driving problem
1 Kay Shuttle technology [4] To improve efficiency of working
2 Jenny's Loom [4] To improve efficiency of working
3 Microscope [4] By accident
4 Barcode [4] To collect product information automatically at checkout
5 Television [4] To transmit images electronically
6 Internal combustion engine [4] To improve thermal efficiency
7 Ultrasound diagnosis [4] To detect the pathological changes of organs in the human body
8 Mercurial thermometer [5] To measure the patient's temperature accurately
9 Fahrenheit [5] To get the temperature exactly
10 Echometer [5] To improve the method of auscultation
11 U-shaped mercury manometer [5] To get the patient's blood pressure
12 Compass, quadrant, spinnaker [5] To solve the problem of positioning in navigation
13 Watt steam engine [5] To improve performance of older steam engine
14 Using steam engines in manufacturing [5] To improve performance of that field
15 Steam driven vessel [5] To improve performance of that field
16 Steam Locomotive [5] To improve performance of that field
17 LD process [5] To improve performance of that field
18 Cotton gin [5] To improve performance of that field
19 Music box [5] By accident
20 Typewriter [5] To page a book automatically
21 Edison's Light Bulb [5] To improve performance
22 Telegram [5] To realize long distance communication
23 Telephone [5] To realize long distance transmission of sound
24 Radio [5] To transmit information wirelessly
25 Movable type printing(Bi Sheng) [5] To improve efficiency of printing
26 Movable type printing (Gutenberg) [5] To improve efficiency of printing
27 Penicillin [5] To kill bacteria
28 Fessenden oscillator [5] To detect underwater objects
29 Aniline violet dyeing technique [5] By accident
30 Porcelain glazing technology [5] By accident
31 Fiberglass [5] To make glass threads
32 Plastics [5] By accident
33 Maxim's machine gun [5] To load the bullet with the force of the gun after firing
34 Radiotelegraph Communication (Marconi) [5] To send a telegram by wireless
35 Radar (Watson Watt) [5] By accident
36 Aspirin(Felix Hoffmann) [5] To relieve his father's pain
37 Plane [5] To fly like a bird
38 Transistor [5] To overcome the limitations of the vacuum tube
39 Google [6] To improve efficiency of finding information in the Internet
40 The internet [6] To share the computing resources
41 WWW [6] To connect information from different computers
42 Computer [6] To compute automatically
43 Integrated circuit [6] To reduce the size of the circuit
44 Disinfection of drinking water [7] To effectively curb waterborne diseases
45 Ice market [7] To explore new market
46 Artificial ice making technology [7] To make ice cubes to help patients cool down
47 Freeze preservation technology [7] To keep the taste of food
48 Three-point suture [19] To achieve vascular suture?
49 Artemisinin (Tu Youyou) [20] To treat malaria
50 Apgar Score [21] To reduce neonatal mortality effectively
Order Invention Driving problem
1 Kay Shuttle technology [4] To improve efficiency of working
2 Jenny's Loom [4] To improve efficiency of working
3 Microscope [4] By accident
4 Barcode [4] To collect product information automatically at checkout
5 Television [4] To transmit images electronically
6 Internal combustion engine [4] To improve thermal efficiency
7 Ultrasound diagnosis [4] To detect the pathological changes of organs in the human body
8 Mercurial thermometer [5] To measure the patient's temperature accurately
9 Fahrenheit [5] To get the temperature exactly
10 Echometer [5] To improve the method of auscultation
11 U-shaped mercury manometer [5] To get the patient's blood pressure
12 Compass, quadrant, spinnaker [5] To solve the problem of positioning in navigation
13 Watt steam engine [5] To improve performance of older steam engine
14 Using steam engines in manufacturing [5] To improve performance of that field
15 Steam driven vessel [5] To improve performance of that field
16 Steam Locomotive [5] To improve performance of that field
17 LD process [5] To improve performance of that field
18 Cotton gin [5] To improve performance of that field
19 Music box [5] By accident
20 Typewriter [5] To page a book automatically
21 Edison's Light Bulb [5] To improve performance
22 Telegram [5] To realize long distance communication
23 Telephone [5] To realize long distance transmission of sound
24 Radio [5] To transmit information wirelessly
25 Movable type printing(Bi Sheng) [5] To improve efficiency of printing
26 Movable type printing (Gutenberg) [5] To improve efficiency of printing
27 Penicillin [5] To kill bacteria
28 Fessenden oscillator [5] To detect underwater objects
29 Aniline violet dyeing technique [5] By accident
30 Porcelain glazing technology [5] By accident
31 Fiberglass [5] To make glass threads
32 Plastics [5] By accident
33 Maxim's machine gun [5] To load the bullet with the force of the gun after firing
34 Radiotelegraph Communication (Marconi) [5] To send a telegram by wireless
35 Radar (Watson Watt) [5] By accident
36 Aspirin(Felix Hoffmann) [5] To relieve his father's pain
37 Plane [5] To fly like a bird
38 Transistor [5] To overcome the limitations of the vacuum tube
39 Google [6] To improve efficiency of finding information in the Internet
40 The internet [6] To share the computing resources
41 WWW [6] To connect information from different computers
42 Computer [6] To compute automatically
43 Integrated circuit [6] To reduce the size of the circuit
44 Disinfection of drinking water [7] To effectively curb waterborne diseases
45 Ice market [7] To explore new market
46 Artificial ice making technology [7] To make ice cubes to help patients cool down
47 Freeze preservation technology [7] To keep the taste of food
48 Three-point suture [19] To achieve vascular suture?
49 Artemisinin (Tu Youyou) [20] To treat malaria
50 Apgar Score [21] To reduce neonatal mortality effectively
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