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Impact of participation in the World Robot Olympiad on K-12 robotics education from the coach's perspective

Academic Editor: William Guo

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  • The integration of robotics education with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has a great potential in future education. In recent years, numerous countries have hosted robotic competitions. This study uses a mixed research method to explore the coaches' views on student participation in the World Robot Olympiad (WRO) by incorporating the questionnaire surveys and interviews conducted at the 2019 WRO finals in Hungary. By quantitative and qualitative analyses, coaches generally agreed that participation in the WRO improved students' STEM learning skills and cultivated their patience and resilience in handling challenging tasks.

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  • Figure 1.  The 2018 and 2019 dimension themes mentioned by coaches

    Table 1.  Overall sample reliability analysis

    Dimension Number of items Number of questions Cronbach's alpha
    Learning Skills 195 5 0.828
    Engineering Thinking 195 5 0.823
    Emotional Engagement 195 2 0.804
    Career Choice 195 2 0.712
    Problem Solving 195 3 0.820
    Collaboration Quality 195 4 0.839
    Global Consciousness 195 5 0.798
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV

    Table 2.  Coach's professional sectors in relation to the seven dimensions

    Sector (mean ± standard deviation) F p
    Primary School Junior High School Senior High School University Training Agency Others
    Learning Skills 22.22±2.45 20.75±3.98 21.41±3.82 22.09±2.70 22.79±2.43 19.67±2.34 2.512 0.031*
    Engineering Thinking 21.09±3.05 20.00±3.34 21.47±3.60 21.91±2.39 22.47±2.27 19.33±1.63 3.221 0.008**
    Emotional Engagement 8.72±1.39 8.59±1.29 8.40±1.86 9.09±1.14 8.94±1.24 7.83±1.47 1.254 0.286
    Career Choice 8.61±1.72 8.47±1.65 8.64±1.56 9.00±0.89 9.00±1.29 7.50±2.07 1.347 0.246
    Problem-Solving 12.88±1.78 12.49±2.00 12.93±2.33 13.34±1.20 13.44±1.60 12.17±0.49 1.298 0.266
    Collaboration Quality 17.48±2.35 16.49±3.08 17.13±3.19 17.64±1.50 17.11±2.90 16.33±1.21 0.638 0.671
    Global Consciousness 21.02±3.70 19.78±4.76 20.96±4.12 22.27±2.76 21.79±3.40 19.96±3.02 1.343 0.248
    Note: * means significant at the 0.05 level; ** means significant at the 0.01 level.
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV

    Table 3.  Competition categories in relation to the seven dimensions

    Student competition category (mean ± standard deviation) F p
    Regular Category Open Category WRO Football Advanced Robotics Challenge (ARC)
    Learning Skills 21.54±3.23 22.50±2.94 21.67±3.76 22.25±3.40 1.078 0.36
    Engineering Thinking 20.98±3.28 22.06±2.68 21.48±3.01 22.50±3.11 1.606 0.189
    Emotional Engagement 8.53±1.38 9.02±1.31 8.48±2.25 9.00±1.15 1.454 0.229
    Career Choice 8.74±1.44 8.88±1.41 7.71±2.15 9.50±1.00 3.555 0.015
    Problem-Solving 12.70±2.08 13.51±1.52 13.11±1.44 13.75±1.50 2.456 0.064
    Collaboration Quality 16.83±2.84 17.49±2.83 17.85±2.20 17.00±3.56 1.208 0.308
    Global Consciousness 20.49±4.06 22.29±3.54 20.90±3.36 22.25±3.40 2.671 0.049*
    Note: * means significant at the 0.05 level; ** means significant at the 0.01 level.
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV
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