Advanced Search
Article Contents
Article Contents

How power distance affect motivation in cross-cultural environment: Findings from Chinese companies in Europe

Academic Editor: William Guo

Abstract Full Text(HTML) Figure(3) / Table(2) Related Papers Cited by
  • Motivation is a key factor for success in education and modern working life. Cross-cultural environment is a challenge to it and, if not taken into account, it can impair learning outcome and lead to high turnover rates in companies. We performed an ethnographic study in two Chinese companies expanded to Europe and observed what problems the organizations faced. Our finding is that main problems originate from cultural differences between Chinese and Western organizations, and that they are mostly explained by the different power distance in the two cultures. The host company has a steep hierarchy of the organization, and it did not delegate the decision making to the locals. This led to frustration, loss of motivation, and high turnover rate.


    \begin{equation} \\ \end{equation}
  • 加载中
  • Figure 1.  Themes of disempowerment in the perceptions of local employees

    Figure 2.  Power distance index adapted from [42]

    Figure 3.  Themes of closed communication in the perceptions of local employees

    Table 1.  A profile of Chinese multinationals chosen in the study

    Entry mode Founded Location Employees Parent company
    Industry Employees Founded
    Greenfield 2000s Scandinavia > 20 Communication > 80, 000 1980s
    Greenfield 2000s Germany > 200 Machinery > 60, 000 1980s
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV

    Table 2.  Characteristics of the participants and example of the coding process in the data analysis

    Dimension Theme Code Original data
    Power distance Limited decision making Not able to make decision Somehow as a Scandinavian, I think I am not regarded as a person; we are not able to make decisions.
    Framework vs. Detail The Western leadership is only a general leadership, only the concept, the boss doesn′t get details. The Chinese boss wants to know everything, and he is the one who knows everything.
    Hierarchy Militarystyle A typical Chinese leadership is based on more centralized thinking and in this way is more like the military style of leadership.
    Follow the order Never ask Never ask, I don′t know why, but never ask.
    No discussion
    No explanation
    No one has discussion with the employees, like whether or not we should do something. No thoughts around it, no communication to the employees.
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV
  • [1] Hofstede, G., Culture's consequences : international differences in work-related values, Vol. 5, 1980, Beverly Hills, Calif. : SAGE.

    Beugelsdijk, S., Maseland, R. and van Hoorn, A., Are scores on Hofstede's dimensions of national culture stable over time? A cohort analysis. Global Strategy Journal, 2015, 5(3): 223-240. https://doi.org/10.1002/gsj.1098

    doi: 10.1002/gsj.1098.


    Mootz, J., Dimensions of Culture (Geert H. Hofstede)–Power Distance. The Encyclopedia of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2013, 405-407. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118339893.wbeccp585

    doi: 10.1002/9781118339893.wbeccp585.


    Wang, H. and Guan, B., The positive effect of authoritarian leadership on employee performance: The moderating role of power distance. Frontiers in psychology, 2018, 9: 357. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00357

    doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00357.


    Dai, Y., Hao, L., Wenting X. Tianyi D., Power Distance Belief and Workplace Communication: The Mediating Role of Fear of Authority. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2022, 19(5): 2932. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052932

    doi: 10.3390/ijerph19052932.


    Gu, Q., Hempel, P.S. and Mingchuan, Y., Tough love and creativity: how authoritarian leadership tempered by benevolence or morality influences employee creativity. British Journal of Management, 2020, 31(2): 305-324. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.12361

    doi: 10.1111/1467-8551.12361.


    Hu, X., Leung, F.K.S. and Yuan, T., The influence of culture on students' mathematics achievement across 51 countries. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 2018, 16(1): 7-24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-018-9899-6

    doi: 10.1007/s10763-018-9899-6.


    Al Hawamdeh, N. and Al Qatamin, A., The effect of cultural dimensions on knowledge-sharing intentions: Evidence from higher education institutions in Jordan. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 2021, 8(5): 1079-1089.


    de Vries, H., Space for STEAM: New creativity challenge in education. Frontiers in psychology, 2021, 12: 812. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.586318

    doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.586318.


    Wenxin, Z. and Yue, W., An Analysis on Sino-UK Cultural Differences in Education from the Perspective of Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions Theory (A Case Study of Are Our Kids Tough Enough?). Journal on Education, 2022, 4(2): 373-384. https://doi.org/10.31004/joe.v4i2.438

    doi: 10.31004/joe.v4i2.438.


    Choi, M.S., Cook, C.M. and Brunton, M.A., Power distance and migrant nurses: The liminality of acculturation. Nursing Inquiry, 2019, 26(4): e12311. https://doi.org/10.1111/nin.12311

    doi: 10.1111/nin.12311.

    [12] Hickman, L. and Mesut A., Exploring virtual reality for developing soft-skills in STEM education. 2017 7th World Engineering Education Forum (WEEF), 2017, 461-465. IEEE, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1109/WEEF.2017.8467037

    Fuangtharnthip, P., Jaitui, K., Pachimsawat, P., Bhattarai, B.P., Manopatanakul, S. and Kasetsuwan, J., Cultural dimensions of dental students in a Thai university. Science, Engineering and Health Studies, 2021, 21050010-21050010.


    Cooke, F.L., Enterprise culture management in China: Insiders' perspective. Management and organization review, 2008, 4(2): 291-314. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8784.2008.00101.x

    doi: 10.1111/j.1740-8784.2008.00101.x.


    Bian, S. and Emons, O., Chinese investments in Germany: increasing in line with Chinese industrial policy. Chinese investment in Europe: corporate strategies and labour relations, 2017, 157-177.


    Hanemann, T. and Huotari, M., Record flows and growing imbalances: Chinese investment in Europe in 2016. MERICS papers on China, 2017, 3: 5.

    [17] Hammersley, M., What's wrong with ethnography?: methodological explorations, 1992, London: Routledge.

    De Rond, M. and Lok, J., Some things can never be unseen: The role of context in psychological injury at war. Academy of Management Journal, 2016, 59(6), 1965-1993. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2015.0681

    doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0681.

    [19] Robben, A.C. and Sluka, J.A., Ethnographic fieldwork: An anthropological reader, 2012, John Wiley & Sons.
    [20] Atkinson, P., Ethnography: Principles in practice, 2007, Routledge.
    [21] Zhai, X., 关系与中国社会[Guanxi and Chinese society], 2012, Beijing: Chinese Social Science press.

    Di Minin, A., Zhang, J. and Gammeltoft, P., Chinese foreign direct investment in R & D in Europe: A new model of R & D internationalization? European Management Journal, 2012, 30(3), 189-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2012.03.004

    doi: 10.1016/j.emj.2012.03.004.

    [23] Howitt, D., Introduction to qualitative methods in psychology, 2010, Prentice Hall Harlow.
    [24] Dennis, H.S., (1974). A theoretical and empirical study of manageiral communication climate in complex organizations, 1974, Purdue University.
    [25] I. Markova and  A. GillespieTrust and distrust: sociocultural perspectives, Information Age Publishing, Charlotte N. C, 2007. 

    Puusa, A. and Tolvanen, U., Organizational identity and trust. Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies, 2006, 11(2): 29-33.

    [27] E.H. ScheinOrganizational culture and leadership, Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco, Calif., 1985. 

    Maslow, A.H., A theory of human motivation. Psychological review, 1943, 50(4), 370. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0054346

    doi: 10.1037/h0054346.


    Herzberg, F., The motivation-hygiene concept and problems of manpower. Personnel Administration, 1964, 27(1): 3-7.

    [30] McGregor, D., The human side of enterprise, Vol. 21, 1960, New York.

    Huang, X., Van de Vliert, E. and Van der Vegt, G., Breaking the silence culture: Stimulation of participation and employee opinion withholding cross-nationally. Management and Organization Review, 2005, 1(3): 459-482. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8784.2005.00023.x

    doi: 10.1111/j.1740-8784.2005.00023.x.


    Hendrix, K.G. and Moore, N. -J., Intercultural Communication in the Classroom. The International Encyclopedia of Intercultural Communication, 2017, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118783665.ieicc0049

    doi: 10.1002/9781118783665.ieicc0049.


    Gerritsen, D., Zimmerman, J. and Ogan, A., Exploring power distance, classroom activity, and the international classroom through personal informatics. Proceedings Sixth International Workshop on Culturally-Aware Tutoring Systems, 2015, 11-19.


    Hu, J., Erdogan, B., Jiang, K., Bauer, T.N. and Liu, S., Leader humility and team creativity: The role of team information sharing, psychological safety, and power distance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 2018, 103(3): 313-323. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000277

    doi: 10.1037/apl0000277.


    Cooke, F.L., Enterprise culture management in China: Insiders' perspective. Management and organization review, 2008, 4(2): 291-314. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8784.2008.00101.x

    doi: 10.1111/j.1740-8784.2008.00101.x.

    [36] Aycan, Z., Paternalistic leadership, 2015, Wiley encyclopedia of management. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118785317.weom060156

    Chen, C.C., Zhang, A.Y. and Wang, H., Enhancing the effects of power sharing on psychological empowerment: The roles of management control and power distance orientation. Management and Organization Review, 2014, 10(1): 135-156. https://doi.org/10.1111/more.12032

    doi: 10.1111/more.12032.


    Lin, W., Wang, L. and Chen, S., Abusive supervision and employee well-being: The moderating effect of power distance orientation. Applied Psychology, 2013, 62(2): 308-329. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2012.00520.x

    doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2012.00520.x.


    Yuan, F. and Zhou, J., Effects of cultural power distance on group creativity and individual group member creativity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2015, 36(7): 990-1007. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2022

    doi: 10.1002/job.2022.


    Schuder, K.L., Using followership to develop new leadership in cultures with greater power distance. Journal of Leadership Studies, 2016, 10(3): 58-61. https://doi.org/10.1002/jls.21495

    doi: 10.1002/jls.21495.


    Barner-Rasmussen, W. and Björkman, I., Language fluency, socialization and inter-unit relationships in Chinese and Finnish subsidiaries. Management and Organization Review, 2007, 3(1): 105-128. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8784.2007.00060.x

    doi: 10.1111/j.1740-8784.2007.00060.x.

    [42] Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G.J. and Minkov, M., Cultures and organizations : software of the mind : intercultural cooperation and its importance for survival (3rd ed. ), 2010, New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Ting-toomey, S. and Kurogi, A., Facework competence in intercultural conflict: an updated face-negotiation theory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 1998, 22(2): 187-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767(98)00004-2

    doi: 10.1016/S0147-1767(98)00004-2.


    Anderson, C., John, O.P. and Keltner, D., The personal sense of power. Journal of personality, 2012, 80(2): 313-344. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2011.00734.x

    doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2011.00734.x.


    Fast, N.J. and Chen, S., When the boss feels inadequate: power, incompetence, and aggression. Psychological science, 2009, 20(11): 1406-1413. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02452.x

    doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02452.x.


    Bugental, D.B. and Lewis, J.C., The paradoxical misuse of power by those who see themselves as powerless: How does it happen? Journal of Social Issues, 1999, 55(1): 51-64. https://doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00104

    doi: 10.1111/0022-4537.00104.


    Keltner, D., Gruenfeld, D.H. and Anderson, C., Power, approach, and inhibition. Psychological review, 2003, 110(2): 265. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.110.2.265

    doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.110.2.265.


    Haidt, J. and Rodin, J., Control and efficacy as interdisciplinary bridges. Review of General Psychology, 1999, 3(4): 317-337. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.3.4.317

    doi: 10.1037/1089-2680.3.4.317.


    Morrison, E.W. and Milliken, F.J., Organizational silence: A barrier to change and development in a pluralistic world. Academy of Management Review, 2000, 25(4): 706-725. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2000.3707697

    doi: 10.5465/amr.2000.3707697.


    Georgesen, J. and Harris, M.J., Holding onto power: Effects of powerholders' positional instability and expectancies on interactions with subordinates. European Journal of Social Psychology, 2006, 36(4): 451-468. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.352

    doi: 10.1002/ejsp.352.


    Ilgen, D.R., Fisher, C.D. and Taylor, M.S., Consequences of individual feedback on behavior in organizations. Journal of applied psychology, 1979, 64(4): 349. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.64.4.349

    doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.64.4.349.

    [52] Argyris, C. and Schön, D.A., Organizational learning: A theory of action perspective, Vol. 173, 1978, Addison-Wesley Reading MA.
    [53] Zhou, J. and Liao, J., (2012). 权力距离导向与员工建言: 组织地位感知的影响[Effects of Perceived Organizational Status on the Relationship between Power Distance Orientation and Employee Voice]. Journal of Management Science, 2012, (01): 35-44.

    Landau, J., When employee voice is met by deaf ears. Sam Advanced Management Journal, 2009, 74(1): 4.


    Avery, D.R., McKay, P.F., Wilson, D.C., Volpone, S.D. and Killham, E.A., Does voice go flat? How tenure diminishes the impact of voice. Human resource management, 2011, 50(1): 147-158. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20403

    doi: 10.1002/hrm.20403.


    Detert, J.R. and Edmondson, A.C., Implicit voice theories: Taken-for-granted rules of self-censorship at work. Academy of Management Journal, 2011, 54(3): 461-488. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2011.61967925

    doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.61967925.


    Paine, J.B. and Organ, D.W., The cultural matrix of organizational citizenship behavior: Some preliminary conceptual and empirical observations. Human Resource Management Review, 2000, 10(1): 45-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1053-4822(99)00038-8

    doi: 10.1016/S1053-4822(99)00038-8.

    [58] Liao, J., Zhao, J. and Zhang, Y., 权力距离对中国领导行为的影响研究[The influence of power distance on leadership behavior in China]. Chinese Journal of Management, 2010, 7(7): 988-992.

    Spreitzer, G.M., Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 1995, 38(5): 1442-1465.


    Moye, M.J. and Henkin, A.B., Exploring associations between employee empowerment and interpersonal trust in managers. Journal of management development, 2006, 25(2): 101-117. https://doi.org/10.1108/02621710610645108

    doi: 10.1108/02621710610645108.


    Likert, R., From Production and Employee-Centeredness to Systems 1-4. Journal of management, 1979, 5(2): 147-156. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920637900500205

    doi: 10.1177/014920637900500205.


    Hammuda, I.M. and Dulaimi, M.F., (1997). The effects of the situational variables on the leadership styles in construction projects. Proceedings 13th Annual ARCOM Conference, 1997, 22-31.


    Pasa, S.F., Leadership influence in a high power distance and collectivist culture. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 2000, 21(8): 414-426. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437730010379258

    doi: 10.1108/01437730010379258.


    Napier, B.J. and Ferris, G.R., Distance in organizations. Human Resource Management Review, 1993, 3(4): 321-357. https://doi.org/10.1016/1053-4822(93)90004-N

    doi: 10.1016/1053-4822(93)90004-N.


    De Souza, G. and Klein, H.J., Emergent Leadership in the Group Goal-Setting Process. Small Group Research, 1995, 26(4): 475-496. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046496495264002

    doi: 10.1177/1046496495264002.


    Van Dyne, L. and LePine, J.A., Helping and Voice Extra-Role Behaviors: Evidence of Construct and Predictive Validity. Academy of Management Journal, 1998, 41(1): 108-119. https://doi.org/10.5465/256902

    doi: 10.5465/256902.

    [67] Hirschman, A.O., Exit, voice and loyalty : responses to decline in firms, organizations, and states (3. pr. ed. ), 1974, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard UP.

    Borman, W.C. and Motowidlo, S.J., Task performance and contextual performance: The meaning for personnel selection research. Human Performance, 1997, 10(2): 99-109. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327043hup1002_3

    doi: 10.1207/s15327043hup1002_3.


    Waldron, V.R., Hunt, M.D. and Dsilva, M., Towards a threat management model of upward communication: A study of influence and maintenance tactics in the leader-member dyad. Communication Studies, 1993, 44(3-4): 254-272. https://doi.org/10.1080/10510979309368399

    doi: 10.1080/10510979309368399.

    [70] Ryan, K.D. and Oestreich, D.K., Driving fear out of the workplace: Creating the high-trust, high-performance organization, 1998, Jossey-Bass.

    Morrison, E.W., Employee voice and silence. Annu. Rev. Organ. Psychol. Organ. Behav. , 2014, 1(1): 173-197. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-031413-091328

    doi: 10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-031413-091328.


    Botero, I.C. and Van Dyne, L., Employee voice behavior interactive effects of LMX and power distance in the United States and Colombia. Management Communication Quarterly, 2009, 23(1): 84-104. https://doi.org/10.1177/0893318909335415

    doi: 10.1177/0893318909335415.


    Pronovost, P.J. and Freischlag, J.A., Improving teamwork to reduce surgical mortality. Jama, 2010, 304(15): 1721-1722. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2010.1542

    doi: 10.1001/jama.2010.1542.

    [74] Ma, Q., 中国政治文化论纲[The outline of Chinese political culture]. Theory Journal, 2002, (06): 29-32.
    [75] Duan, J. and Ling, B., 中国背景下员工建言行为结构及中庸思维对其的影响[A Chinese Indigenous Study of the Construct of Employee Voice Behavior and the Influence of Zhongyong on It]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2011, (10): 1185-1197.
    [76] Duan, J. and Huang, C., 个人权力感对进谏行为的影响机制: 权力认知的视角[The Mechanisem of Employee's Sense of Power on Speaking-up: A Power Cognition Perspective]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2013, (02): 217-230.

    Dyne, L.V., Ang, S. and Botero, I.C., Conceptualizing employee silence and employee voice as multidimensional constructs. Journal of Management Studies, 2003, 40(6): 1359-1392. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00384

    doi: 10.1111/1467-6486.00384.


    Tjosvold, D. and Sun, H.F., Understanding conflict avoidance: Relationship, motivations, actions, and consequences. International Journal of Conflict Management, 2002, 13(2): 142-164. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb022872

    doi: 10.1108/eb022872.


    Milliken, F.J., Morrison, E.W. and Hewlin, P.F., An exploratory study of employee silence: Issues that employees don't communicate upward and why. Journal of Management Studies, 2003, 40(6): 1453-1476. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00387

    doi: 10.1111/1467-6486.00387.


    Vakola, M. and Bouradas, D., Antecedents and consequences of organisational silence: an empirical investigation. Employee Relations, 2005, 27(5): 441-458. https://doi.org/10.1108/01425450510611997

    doi: 10.1108/01425450510611997.

    [81] Smith, P.B., Bond, M.H. and Kagitcibasi, C., Understanding social psychology across cultures : living and working in a changing world, 2006, London: Sage. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446212028
    [82] Yang, Z. -F., 如何理解中国人: 文化与个人论文集[How to Understand the Chinese: cultural and personal Engineers], 2009, Chongqing: Chongqing Univeristy Press.
    [83] Zhao, Z., 从中国俗谚看中国文化的个人集体取向[G], The Individual and Collective Orientation of Chinese Culture from the Perspective of Chinese Proverbs, unpublished work, 1986.
    [84] House, R.J., Hanges, P.J., Dorfman, P.W., Gupta, V. and Javidan, M., Culture, leadership, and organizations : the GLOBE study of 62 societies, 2004, Sage Publications.
    [85] Chen, X., 跨文化管理[Cross-cultural management], 2016, Beijing: Tsinghua University press.

    Busch, R., McMahon, R., Unger, A., May, C. and Wang, Y.C., A Comparison of Leadership Styles between Chinese and German Managers of Chinese Companies in Germany. Chinese Management Review, 2013, 16(2): 1-17.


    Farh, J. -L. and Cheng, B. -S., A cultural analysis of paternalistic leadership in Chinese organizations. Management and organizations in the Chinese context, 2000, 84-127. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230511590_5

    doi: 10.1057/9780230511590_5.

    [88] King, A.Y., An analysis of "reqing" in interpersonal relationships: A preliminary inquiry. Proceedings ofthe international Conference on Sinology. Taipei, Taiwan: Academia Sinica (in Chinese), 1980.

    Mayer, R.C., Davis, J.H. and Schoorman, F.D., An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 1995, 20(3): 709-734. https://doi.org/10.2307/258792

    doi: 10.2307/258792.


    Eylon, D. and Au, K.Y., Exploring empowerment cross-cultural differences along the power distance dimension. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 1999, 23(3): 373-385. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767(99)00002-4

    doi: 10.1016/S0147-1767(99)00002-4.


    Pronovost, P.J. and Freischlag, J.A., Improving teamwork to reduce surgical mortality. Jama, 2010, 304(15): 1721-1722. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2010.1542

    doi: 10.1001/jama.2010.1542.

    [92] Miles, R.E., Theories of management: implications for organizational behavior and development, 1975, Tokyo: McGraw-Hill.

    Bhagat, R.S. and Triandis, H.C., Cultural variations in the cross-border transfer of organizastional knowledge: an integratyive framework. Academy of Management Review, 2002, 27(2): 204-221. https://doi.org/10.2307/4134352

    doi: 10.2307/4134352.

    [94] Yao, S., Deng, Y. and Zheng, J., 中国背景下企业员工沉默行为的文化根源[Under the Chinese Background the Silence Behavior of Employees of Cultural Roots]. East china economic management, 2009, (06): 135-138.
    [95] Zhang, X., 跨文化上下级信任互动研究[A study on the interaction of trust between different cultures], 2014, (Doctor), Beijing Foreign Studies University.
    [96] Oyserman, D. and Markus, H.R., Self as social representation, 1998.

    Fry, D.P., Conflict management in cross-cultural perspective. Natural conflict resolution, 2000, 334-351.


    Schramm-Nielsen, J., Conflict Management in Scandinavia. Paper presented at the IACM 15th Annual Conference, 2002. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.305153

    doi: 10.2139/ssrn.305153.


    Lunenburg, F.C., Power and leadership: an influence process. International journal of management, business, and administration, 2012, 15(1): 1-9.


    Varela, O.E., Salgado, E.I. and Lasio, M.V., The Meaning of Job Performance in Collectivistic and High Power Distance Cultures: Evidence from Three Latin American Countries. Cross Cultural Management An International Journal, 2010, 17(4): 407-426. https://doi.org/10.1108/13527601011086603

    doi: 10.1108/13527601011086603.


    Greenberg, J., Stealing in the name of justice: Informational and interpersonal moderators of theft reactions to underpayment inequity. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 1993, 54(1): 81-103. https://doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1993.1004

    doi: 10.1006/obhd.1993.1004.

    [102] Wang, Y., Long, L., Zhou, H. and Zu, W., 分配不公正下的退缩行为: 程序公正和互动公正的影响[Withdrawn Behaviors under Distributive Injustice: The Influence of Procedural Justice and Interactional Justice]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2007, (02): 335-342.
    [103] Fei, X., 乡土中国修订版[Rural China], 2013, Shanghai: Shanghai people's publishing house.

    Choi, J. and Chen, C.C., The relationships of distributive justice and compensation system fairness to employee attitudes in international joint ventures. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2007, 28(6): 687-703. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.438

    doi: 10.1002/job.438.

    [105] Trompenaars, F. and Hampden-Turner, C., Riding the waves of culture: Understanding diversity in global business, 2011, Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
    [106] Han, W. and Xi, Y., 关系: 中国商业活动的基本模式探讨[Relationship: the basic model of Chinese commercial activities]. Journal of Northwestern University (PHILOSOPHY AND SOCIAL SCIENCES EDITION), 2001, 31(01): 43-47.

    Luo, Y., Guanxi: Principles, Philosophies, and Implications. Human Systems Management, 1997, 16(1): 43-51. https://doi.org/10.3233/HSM-1997-16106

    doi: 10.3233/HSM-1997-16106.

    [108] Huang, G., 人情与面子中国人的权利游戏[Favor and Face: Power Game of Chinese], 2010, China Renmin University Press.
    [109] Zhou, J., 权力距离导向对员工沉默的作用机制研究[A study on the mechanism of the relationship between power distance orientation and employee silence], 2013, (Doctor), Huazhong University of Science and Technology.
  • 加载中
Open Access Under a Creative Commons license




Article Metrics

HTML views(2369) PDF downloads(601) Cited by(0)

Access History

Other Articles By Authors



    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint