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August  2022, 2(3): 197-220. doi: 10.3934/steme.2022013

Effects of COVID-19 pandemic on education and society

1. 

Université Paris-Saclay, UVSQ, DAVID, France; zaineb.chelly-dagdia@uvsq.fr

2. 

University of Tunis, ISG, Tunis, Tunisia

3. 

Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Medical Investigation, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Brazil; acssilva@hotmail.com

* Correspondence: Email: zaineb.chelly-dagdia@uvsq.fr

Academic Editor: Tuba Nur Gide

Received  June 2022 Accepted  July 2022 Published  August 2022

This paper sheds light on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on society and the surrounding environment, with a special focus on education and the social aspect. Specifically, how the pandemic has disrupted education systems across the globe by forcing the closure of primary and secondary schools, colleges and universities is discussed. Since it is not only the students who were affected by this worldwide health emergency, the impact on educators and parents, as well as all aspects of the education system, including admissions, assessments and evaluations, is also debated. These facets are discussed while emphasizing the shifts that many organizations underwent to maintain operations while adhering to the announced governmental restrictions related to the circulation of the pandemic. Specifically, the needs to rapidly implement significant modifications to their usual practices and standard operational processes and convert their existing teaching materials to another format to make them appropriate for online delivery are highlighted and discussed.

Citation: Zaineb Chelly Dagdia, Ana Cristina Simões e Silva. Effects of COVID-19 pandemic on education and society. STEM Education, 2022, 2 (3) : 197-220. doi: 10.3934/steme.2022013
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show all references

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[15]

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[18]

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Figure 1.  Structure of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Source: [7]
Figure 2.  Categorization of the SARS-CoV-2 variants
Figure 3.  Different clusters of the COVID-19 signs and symptoms
Figure 4.  Number of weeks that schools around the world were fully closed/partially open due to COVID-19 during the period of August 2020 to December 2021. Source: UNESCO map on school closures (https://en.unesco.org/covid19/educationresponse) and UIS, December 2021 (http://data.uis.unesco.org/)
Figure 5.  Number of students and teachers affected by school closures (April 1, 2020) due to COVID-19. Source: UNESCO map on school closures (https://en.unesco.org/covid19/ educationresponse) and UIS, accessed in December of 2021 (http://data.uis.unesco.org)
Figure 6.  Percentage of change in reading proficiency for grades one to eight from 2019 to 2020. Source: United Nations: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all (https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/report/2021/goal-04/)
Figure 7.  Societal, emotional, psychological and behavioral effects of COVID-19 on vulnerable populations. PTSD: post-traumatic stress disorder
Table 1.  Globally, as of 7:57 pm CET on March 16, 2022, there have been 460,280,168 confirmed cases of COVID-19, including 6,050,018 deaths, reported to the WHO. As of March 13, 2022, a total of 10,712,423,741 vaccine doses have been administered. Source: WHO COVID-19 Dashboard. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2020. Available online: https://covid19.who.int/ (last cited: March 16, 2022)
WHO region Cumulative confirmed cases Cumulative confirmed deaths Cumulative total vaccine doses administered
Africa 8501208 170634 279569999
Americas 149185071 2663778 1671462750
South-East Asia 56586444 770289 2583697206
Europe 189964699 1910254 1507087483
Eastern Mediterranean 21466737 338737 661956824
Western Pacific 34575245 196313 4008571856
Other 764 13 77623
Total 460280168 6050018 10712423741
WHO region Cumulative confirmed cases Cumulative confirmed deaths Cumulative total vaccine doses administered
Africa 8501208 170634 279569999
Americas 149185071 2663778 1671462750
South-East Asia 56586444 770289 2583697206
Europe 189964699 1910254 1507087483
Eastern Mediterranean 21466737 338737 661956824
Western Pacific 34575245 196313 4008571856
Other 764 13 77623
Total 460280168 6050018 10712423741
Table 2.  Percentage of countries using remote education delivery methods during school closures due to COVID-19. Source: UNESCO map on school closures (https://en.unesco.org/covid19/ educationresponse) and UIS; obtained in December of 2021 (http://data.uis.unesco.org) for April 1, 2020
WHO region type: World Bank country income grouping (July 2020) Existence of TV as a distance learning modality in the country Existence of radio as a distance learning modality in the country Existence of an online distance learning modality in the country Existence of distance learning modalities (combination of TV + radio + Internet) in the country vs (Non-existence)
High income 41% 5% 54% 79% (21%)
Low income 35% 35% 30% 77% (23%)
Lower middle income 38% 26% 37% 95% (5%)
Upper middle income 39% 19% 43% 93% (7%)
WHO region type: World Bank country income grouping (July 2020) Existence of TV as a distance learning modality in the country Existence of radio as a distance learning modality in the country Existence of an online distance learning modality in the country Existence of distance learning modalities (combination of TV + radio + Internet) in the country vs (Non-existence)
High income 41% 5% 54% 79% (21%)
Low income 35% 35% 30% 77% (23%)
Lower middle income 38% 26% 37% 95% (5%)
Upper middle income 39% 19% 43% 93% (7%)
Table 3.  Distribution of depression and anxiety cases in Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, North America, Sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia and the Pacific for individuals aged 60 years or older according to the study by Tyler et al. [70]
Global Regions Depression Anxiety
Europe and Central Asia 121 (47.2%) 52 (40.6%)
Latin America and Caribbean 68 (26.6%) 40 (31.3%)
North America 58 (22.7%) 33 (25.8%)
Sub-Saharan Africa 6 (2.3%) 3 (2.3%)
East Asia and Pacific 3 (1.2%) 0 (0%)
Total 256 128
Global Regions Depression Anxiety
Europe and Central Asia 121 (47.2%) 52 (40.6%)
Latin America and Caribbean 68 (26.6%) 40 (31.3%)
North America 58 (22.7%) 33 (25.8%)
Sub-Saharan Africa 6 (2.3%) 3 (2.3%)
East Asia and Pacific 3 (1.2%) 0 (0%)
Total 256 128
Table 3.  Total number of reported cases of domestic violence from March 2020 to August 2020 according to the continent (data obtained from https://dataunodc.un.org/content/covid-19)
Continent Cases of domestic violence, number (percentage)
Europe 77226 (49.8%)
Latin America 58928 (38.0%)
Africa 13026 (8.4%)
Oceania 4807 (3.1%)
Asia 1086 (0.7%)
Total 155073
Continent Cases of domestic violence, number (percentage)
Europe 77226 (49.8%)
Latin America 58928 (38.0%)
Africa 13026 (8.4%)
Oceania 4807 (3.1%)
Asia 1086 (0.7%)
Total 155073
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