Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - B
September 2020 , Volume 25 , Issue 9
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A class of autonomous discrete dynamical systems as population models for competing species are considered when each nullcline surface is a hyperplane. Criteria are established for global attraction of an interior or a boundary fixed point by a geometric method utilising the relative position of these nullcline planes only, independent of the growth rate function. These criteria are universal for a broad class of systems, so they can be applied directly to some known models appearing in the literature including Ricker competition models, Leslie-Gower models, Atkinson-Allen models, and generalised Atkinson-Allen models. Then global asymptotic stability is obtained by finding the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix at the fixed point. An intriguing question is proposed: Can a globally attracting fixed point induce a homoclinic cycle?
This paper is concerned with a general asymptotic stabilization of arbitrary global positive bounded solutions for the Lotka Volterra reaction diffusion systems, with an additional chemotactic influence and constant coefficients. We consider the dynamics of a mathematical model involving two biological species, both of which move according to random diffusion and are attracted/ repulsed by chemical stimulus produced by the other. The biological species present the ability to orientate their movement towards the concentration of the chemical secreted by the other species. The nonlinear system consists of two parabolic equations with Lotka-Volterra-type kinetic terms coupled with chemotactic cross-diffusion, along with two elliptic equations describing the behavior of the chemicals. We prove that the solution to the corresponding Neumann initial boundary value problem is global and bounded for regular and positive initial data. Moreover, for different ranges of parameters, we show that any positive and bounded solution converges to a spatially constant homogeneous state.
In this paper, we consider the numerical approximation of the space and time fractional Bloch-Torrey equations. A fully discrete spectral scheme based on a finite difference method in the time direction and a Galerkin-Legendre spectral method in the space direction is developed. In order to reduce the amount of computation, an alternating direction implicit (ADI) spectral scheme is proposed. Then the stability and convergence analysis are rigorously established. Finally, numerical results are presented to support our theoretical analysis.
A two-strain rotavirus model with vaccination and homotypic protection is proposed to study the survival of the two strains of rotavirus within the host. Corresponding to the different efficacy of monovalent vaccine against different strains, the vaccination reproduction numbers of the two strains and the reproduction numbers of their mutual invasion are found. Based on the existence and local stability of equilibria, our results suggest that the obtained reproduction numbers determine together the dynamics of the model, and that the two-strain rotavirus dies out as both the numbers is less than unity. The coexistence of two strains, one of which is dominant, is also related to the two reproduction numbers.
The dynamics of three dimensional Kelvin-Voigt-Brinkman- Forchheimer equations in bounded domains is considered in this work. The existence and uniqueness of strong solution to the system is obtained by exploiting the
We consider an initial-boundary value problem for the incompressible four-component Keller-Segel-Navier-Stokes system with rotational flux
in a bounded domain
A diffusive predator-prey model with nonlocal prey competition and the homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions is considered, to explore the effects of nonlocal reaction term. Firstly, conditions of the occurrence of Hopf, Turing, Turing-Turing and double zero bifurcations, are established. Then, several concise formulas of computing normal form at a double zero singularity for partial functional differential equations, are provided. Next, via analyzing normal form derived by utilizing these formulas, we find that diffusive predator-prey system admits interesting spatiotemporal dynamics near the double zero singularity, like tristable phenomenon that a stable spatially inhomogeneous periodic solution with the shape of
Based on the fact that HIV/AIDS manifests different transmission characteristics and pathogenesis in different age groups, and the proportions of youth and elderly HIV infected cases in total are increasing in China, we classify the whole population into three age groups, youth (15-24), adult (25-49), and elderly (
This paper is devoted to the dynamics of a predator-prey model with stage structure for prey and state-dependent maturation delay. Firstly, positivity and boundedness of solutions are addressed to describe the population survival and the natural restriction of limited resources. Secondly, the existence, uniqueness, and local asymptotical stability of (boundary and coexisting) equilibria are investigated by means of degree theory and Routh-Hurwitz criteria. Thirdly, the explicit bounds for the eventual behaviors of the mature population are obtained. Finally, by means of comparison principle and two auxiliary systems, it observed that the local asymptotical stability of either of the positive interior equilibrium and the positive boundary equilibrium implies that it is also globally asymptotical stable if the derivative of the delay function around this equilibrium is small enough.
In this work, the existence and uniqueness of random attractors of a class of non-autonomous non-local fractional stochastic Ginzburg-Landau equation driven by colored noise with a nonlinear diffusion term is established. We comment that compared to white noise, the colored noise is much easier to handle in examining the pathwise dynamics of stochastic systems. Additionally, we prove the attractors of the random fractional Ginzburg-Landau system driven by a linear multiplicative colored noise converge to those of the corresponding stochastic system driven by a linear multiplicative white noise.
In this paper, we consider the boundary value problems of a one-dimensional steady-state SIS epidemic reaction-diffusion-advection system in the following two cases: (ⅰ) the advection rate is relatively large comparing to the diffusion rates of infected and susceptible populations; (ⅱ) the diffusion rate of the susceptible population approaches zero. By introducing a singular parameter, the system can be viewed as a singularly perturbed problem. By the renormalization group method, we construct the first-order approximate solutions and obtain error estimates.
In this paper, we show that for discrete time-varying linear control systems uniform complete controllability implies arbitrary assignability of dichotomy spectrum of closed-loop systems. This result significantly strengthens the result in [
We study a parabolic Lotka-Volterra equation, with an integral term representing competition, and time periodic growth rate. This model represents a trait structured population in a time periodic environment. After showing the convergence of the solution to the unique positive and periodic solution of the problem, we study the influence of different factors on the mean limit population. As this quantity is the opposite of a certain eigenvalue, we are able to investigate the influence of the diffusion rate, the period length and the time variance of the environment fluctuations. We also give biological interpretation of the results in the framework of cancer, if the model represents a cancerous cells population under the influence of a periodic treatment. In this framework, we show that the population might benefit from a intermediate rate of mutation.
The time at which a one-dimensional continuous strong Markov process attains a boundary point of its state space is a discontinuous path functional and it is, therefore, unclear whether the exit time can be approximated by hitting times of approximations of the process. We prove a functional limit theorem for approximating weakly both the paths of the Markov process and its exit times. In contrast to the functional limit theorem in [
Delay differential equation is considered under stochastic perturbations of the type of white noise and Poisson's jumps. It is shown that if stochastic perturbations fade on the infinity quickly enough then sufficient conditions for asymptotic stability of the zero solution of the deterministic differential equation with delay provide also asymptotic mean square stability of the zero solution of the stochastic differential equation. Stability conditions are obtained via the general method of Lyapunov functionals construction and the method of Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs). Investigation of the situation when stochastic perturbations do not fade on the infinity or fade not enough quickly is proposed as an unsolved problem.
We study the dynamics of an inhomogeneous neuronal network parametrized by a real number
We establish a framework to investigate approximate synchronization of coupled systems under general coupling schemes. The units comprising the coupled systems may be nonidentical and the coupling functions are nonlinear with delays. Both delay-dependent and delay-independent criteria for approximate synchronization are derived, based on an approach termed sequential contracting. It is explored and elucidated that the synchronization error, the distance between the asymptotic state and the synchronous set, decreases with decreasing difference between subsystems, difference between the row sums of connection matrix, and difference of coupling time delays between different units. This error vanishes when these factors decay to zero, and approximate synchronization becomes identical synchronization for the coupled system comprising identical subsystems and connection matrix with identical row sums, and with identical coupling delays. The application of the present theory to nonlinearly coupled heterogeneous FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons is illustrated. We extend the analysis to study approximate synchronization and asymptotic synchronization for coupled Lorenz systems and show that for some coupling schemes, the synchronization error decreases as the coupling strength increases, whereas in another case, the error remains at a substantial level for large coupling strength.
In this paper, we consider the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation in 3D, with a dissipative term of order
We recently derived a method, local orthogonal rectification (LOR), that provides a natural and useful geometric frame for analyzing dynamics relative to a base curve in the phase plane for two-dimensional systems of ODEs (Letson and Rubin, SIAM J. Appl. Dyn. Syst., 2018). This work extends LOR to apply to any embedded base manifold in a system of ODEs of arbitrary dimension and establishes a corresponding system of LOR equations for analyzing dynamics within the LOR frame, which maps naturally back to the original phase space. The LOR equations encode geometric properties of the underlying flow and remain valid, in general, beyond a local neighborhood of the embedded manifold. In addition to developing a general theory for LOR that makes use of a given normal frame, we show how to construct a normal frame that conveniently simplifies the computations involved in LOR. Finally, we illustrate the utility of LOR by showing that a blow-up transformation on the LOR equations provides a useful decomposition for studying trajectories' behavior relative to the embedded base manifold and by using LOR to identify canard behavior near a fold of a critical manifold in a two-timescale system.
The nonlinear stability and convergence of a numerical scheme for the "Good" Boussinesq equation is provided in this article, with second order temporal accuracy and Fourier pseudo-spectral approximation in space. Instead of introducing an intermediate variable
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