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Mathematical Biosciences & Engineering

June 2017 , Volume 14 , Issue 3

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Modeling and simulation for toxicity assessment
Cristina Anton, Jian Deng, Yau Shu Wong, Yile Zhang, Weiping Zhang, Stephan Gabos, Dorothy Yu Huang and Can Jin
2017, 14(3): 581-606 doi: 10.3934/mbe.2017034 +[Abstract](3643) +[HTML](66) +[PDF](1053.2KB)

The effect of various toxicants on growth/death and morphology of human cells is investigated using the xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analysis High Troughput in vitro assay. The cell index is measured as a proxy for the number of cells, and for each test substance in each cell line, time-dependent concentration response curves (TCRCs) are generated. In this paper we propose a mathematical model to study the effect of toxicants with various initial concentrations on the cell index. This model is based on the logistic equation and linear kinetics. We consider a three dimensional system of differential equations with variables corresponding to the cell index, the intracellular concentration of toxicant, and the extracellular concentration of toxicant. To efficiently estimate the model's parameters, we design an Expectation Maximization algorithm. The model is validated by showing that it accurately represents the information provided by the TCRCs recorded after the experiments. Using stability analysis and numerical simulations, we determine the lowest concentration of toxin that can kill the cells. This information can be used to better design experimental studies for cytotoxicity profiling assessment.

Flow optimization in vascular networks
Radu C. Cascaval, Ciro D'Apice, Maria Pia D'Arienzo and Rosanna Manzo
2017, 14(3): 607-624 doi: 10.3934/mbe.2017035 +[Abstract](3540) +[HTML](69) +[PDF](1446.2KB)

The development of mathematical models for studying phenomena observed in vascular networks is very useful for its potential applications in medicine and physiology. Detailed $3$D studies of flow in the arterial system based on the Navier-Stokes equations require high computational power, hence reduced models are often used, both for the constitutive laws and the spatial domain. In order to capture the major features of the phenomena under study, such as variations in arterial pressure and flow velocity, the resulting PDE models on networks require appropriate junction and boundary conditions. Instead of considering an entire network, we simulate portions of the latter and use inflow and outflow conditions which realistically mimic the behavior of the network that has not been included in the spatial domain. The resulting PDEs are solved numerically using a discontinuous Galerkin scheme for the spatial and Adam-Bashforth method for the temporal discretization. The aim is to study the effect of truncation to the flow in the root edge of a fractal network, the effect of adding or subtracting an edge to a given network, and optimal control strategies on a network in the event of a blockage or unblockage of an edge or of an entire subtree.

Mathematical analysis of a quorum sensing induced biofilm dispersal model and numerical simulation of hollowing effects
Blessing O. Emerenini, Stefanie Sonner and Hermann J. Eberl
2017, 14(3): 625-653 doi: 10.3934/mbe.2017036 +[Abstract](3654) +[HTML](55) +[PDF](810.0KB)

We analyze a mathematical model of quorum sensing induced biofilm dispersal. It is formulated as a system of non-linear, density-dependent, diffusion-reaction equations. The governing equation for the sessile biomass comprises two non-linear diffusion effects, a degeneracy as in the porous medium equation and fast diffusion. This equation is coupled with three semi-linear diffusion-reaction equations for the concentrations of growth limiting nutrients, autoinducers, and dispersed cells. We prove the existence and uniqueness of bounded non-negative solutions of this system and study the behavior of the model in numerical simulations, where we focus on hollowing effects in established biofilms.

Germinal center dynamics during acute and chronic infection
Samantha Erwin and Stanca M. Ciupe
2017, 14(3): 655-671 doi: 10.3934/mbe.2017037 +[Abstract](3658) +[HTML](54) +[PDF](1257.9KB)

The ability of the immune system to clear pathogens is limited during chronic virus infections where potent long-lived plasma and memory B-cells are produced only after germinal center B-cells undergo many rounds of somatic hypermutations. In this paper, we investigate the mechanisms of germinal center B-cell formation by developing mathematical models for the dynamics of B-cell somatic hypermutations. We use the models to determine how B-cell selection and competition for T follicular helper cells and antigen influences the size and composition of germinal centers in acute and chronic infections. We predict that the T follicular helper cells are a limiting resource in driving large numbers of somatic hypermutations and present possible mechanisms that can revert this limitation in the presence of non-mutating and mutating antigen.

Moments of von mises and fisher distributions and applications
Thomas Hillen, Kevin J. Painter, Amanda C. Swan and Albert D. Murtha
2017, 14(3): 673-694 doi: 10.3934/mbe.2017038 +[Abstract](5505) +[HTML](113) +[PDF](7194.4KB)

The von Mises and Fisher distributions are spherical analogues to theNormal distribution on the unit circle and unit sphere, respectively. The computation of their moments, and in particular the second moment, usually involves solving tedious trigonometric integrals. Here we present a new method to compute the moments of spherical distributions, based on the divergence theorem. This method allows a clear derivation of the second moments and can be easily generalized to higher dimensions. In particular we note that, to our knowledge, the variance-covariance matrix of the three dimensional Fisher distribution has not previously been explicitly computed. While the emphasis of this paper lies in calculating the moments of spherical distributions, their usefulness is motivated by their relationship to population statistics in animal/cell movement models and demonstrated in applications to the modelling of sea turtle navigation, wolf movement and brain tumour growth.

Mixed vaccination strategy for the control of tuberculosis: A case study in China
Siyu Liu, Yong Li, Yingjie Bi and Qingdao Huang
2017, 14(3): 695-708 doi: 10.3934/mbe.2017039 +[Abstract](3905) +[HTML](75) +[PDF](598.1KB)

This study first presents a mathematical model of TB transmission considering BCG vaccination compartment to investigate the transmission dynamics nowadays. Based on data reported by the National Bureau of Statistics of China, the basic reproduction number is estimated approximately as \begin{document}$\mathcal{R}_{0}=1.1892$\end{document}. To reach the new End TB goal raised by WHO in 2015, considering the health system in China, we design a mixed vaccination strategy. Theoretical analysis indicates that the infectious population asymptotically tends to zero with the new vaccination strategy which is the combination of constant vaccination and pulse vaccination. We obtain that the control of TB is quicker to achieve with the mixed vaccination. The new strategy can make the best of current constant vaccination, and the periodic routine health examination provides an operable environment for implementing pulse vaccination in China. Numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the theoretical results and help to design the final mixed vaccination strategy once the new vaccine comes out.

Mathematical analysis and dynamic active subspaces for a long term model of HIV
Tyson Loudon and Stephen Pankavich
2017, 14(3): 709-733 doi: 10.3934/mbe.2017040 +[Abstract](3156) +[HTML](54) +[PDF](2764.9KB)

Recently, a long-term model of HIV infection dynamics [8] was developed to describe the entire time course of the disease. It consists of a large system of ODEs with many parameters, and is expensive to simulate. In the current paper, this model is analyzed by determining all infection-free steady states and studying the local stability properties of the unique biologically-relevant equilibrium. Active subspace methods are then used to perform a global sensitivity analysis and study the dependence of an infected individual's T-cell count on the parameter space. Building on these results, a global-in-time approximation of the T-cell count is created by constructing dynamic active subspaces and reduced order models are generated, thereby allowing for inexpensive computation.

Effect of the epidemiological heterogeneity on the outbreak outcomes
Alina Macacu and Dominique J. Bicout
2017, 14(3): 735-754 doi: 10.3934/mbe.2017041 +[Abstract](3089) +[HTML](65) +[PDF](514.5KB)

Multi-host pathogens infect and are transmitted by different kinds of hosts and, therefore, the host heterogeneity may have a great impact on the outbreak outcome of the system. This paper deals with the following problem: consider the system of interacting and mixed populations of hosts epidemiologically different, what would be the outbreak outcome for each host population composing the system as a result of mixing in comparison to the situation with zero mixing? To address this issue we have characterized the epidemic response function for a single-host population and defined a heterogeneity index measuring how host systems are epidemiologically different in terms of generation time, basic reproduction number \begin{document}$R_0$\end{document} and, therefore, epidemic response function. Based on the individual epidemiological characteristics of populations, with heterogeneities and mixing affinities, the response of subpopulations in a multi-host system is compared to that of a single-host system. The case of a two-host system, in which the infection transmission depends solely on the infection susceptibility of the receiver, is analyzed in detail. Three types of responses are observed: dilution, amplification or no effect, corresponding to lower, higher or equal attack rates, respectively, for a host population in an interacting multi-host system compared to the zero-mixing situation. We find that no effect is generally observed for zero heterogeneity. A dilution effect is always observed for all the host populations when their individual \begin{document}$R_{0,i} <1$\end{document}. Whereas, when at least one of the individual \begin{document}$R_{0,i}>1$\end{document}, then the hosts "\begin{document}$i$\end{document}" with \begin{document}$R_{0,i}>R_{0,j}$\end{document} undergo a dilution effect while the hosts "\begin{document}$j$\end{document}" undergo an amplification effect.

Effects of selection and mutation on epidemiology of X-linked genetic diseases
Francesca Verrilli, Hamed Kebriaei, Luigi Glielmo, Martin Corless and Carmen Del Vecchio
2017, 14(3): 755-775 doi: 10.3934/mbe.2017042 +[Abstract](3446) +[HTML](68) +[PDF](1599.8KB)

The epidemiology of X-linked recessive diseases, a class of genetic disorders, is modeled with a discrete-time, structured, non linear mathematical system. The model accounts for both de novo mutations (i.e., affected sibling born to unaffected parents) and selection (i.e., distinct fitness rates depending on individual's health conditions). Assuming that the population is constant over generations and relying on Lyapunov theory we found the domain of attraction of model's equilibrium point and studied the convergence properties of the degenerate equilibrium where only affected individuals survive. Examples of applications of the proposed model to two among the most common X-linked recessive diseases (namely the red and green color blindness and the Hemophilia A) are described.

Mathematical modeling of continuous and intermittent androgen suppression for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer
Alacia M. Voth, John G. Alford and Edward W. Swim
2017, 14(3): 777-804 doi: 10.3934/mbe.2017043 +[Abstract](3909) +[HTML](47) +[PDF](1870.7KB)

Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent types of cancer among men. It is stimulated by the androgens, or male sexual hormones, which circulate in the blood and diffuse into the tissue where they stimulate the prostate tumor to grow. One of the most important treatments for advanced prostate cancer has become androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). In this paper we present three different models of ADT for prostate cancer: continuous androgen suppression (CAS), intermittent androgen suppression (IAS), and periodic androgen suppression. Currently, many patients in the U.S. receive CAS therapy of ADT, but many undergo a relapse after several years and experience adverse side effects while receiving treatment. Some clinical studies have introduced various IAS regimens in order to delay the time to relapse, and/or to reduce the economic costs and adverse side effects. We will compute and analyze parameter sensitivity analysis for CAS and IAS which may give insight to plan effective data collection in a future clinical trial. Moreover, a periodic model for IAS is used to develop an analytical formulation for relapse times which then provides information about the sensitivity of relapse to the parameters in our models.

A note on the global properties of an age-structured viral dynamic model with multiple target cell populations
Shaoli Wang, Jianhong Wu and Libin Rong
2017, 14(3): 805-820 doi: 10.3934/mbe.2017044 +[Abstract](2981) +[HTML](57) +[PDF](372.3KB)

Some viruses can infect different classes of cells. The age of infection can affect the dynamics of infected cells and viral production. Here we develop a viral dynamic model with the age of infection and multiple target cell populations. Using the methods of semigroup and Lyapunov function, we study the global asymptotic property of the steady states of the model. The results show that when the basic reproductive number falls below 1, the infection is predicted to die out. When the basic reproductive number exceeds 1, there exists a unique infected steady state which is globally asymptotically stable. The model can be extended to study virus dynamics with multiple compartments or coinfection by multiple types of viruses. We also show that under some scenarios the age-structured model can be reduced to an ordinary differential equation system with or without time delays.

2018 Impact Factor: 1.313




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