Kinetic & Related Models
March 2013 , Volume 6 , Issue 1
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In this paper, we mainly review recent results on mathematical theory and numerical methods for Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), based on the Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE). Starting from the simplest case with one-component BEC of the weakly interacting bosons, we study the reduction of GPE to lower dimensions, the ground states of BEC including the existence and uniqueness as well as nonexistence results, and the dynamics of GPE including dynamical laws, well-posedness of the Cauchy problem as well as the finite time blow-up. To compute the ground state, the gradient flow with discrete normalization (or imaginary time) method is reviewed and various full discretization methods are presented and compared. To simulate the dynamics, both finite difference methods and time splitting spectral methods are reviewed, and their error estimates are briefly outlined. When the GPE has symmetric properties, we show how to simplify the numerical methods. Then we compare two widely used scalings, i.e. physical scaling (commonly used) and semiclassical scaling, for BEC in strong repulsive interaction regime (Thomas-Fermi regime), and discuss semiclassical limits of the GPE. Extensions of these results for one-component BEC are then carried out for rotating BEC by GPE with an angular momentum rotation, dipolar BEC by GPE with long range dipole-dipole interaction, and two-component BEC by coupled GPEs. Finally, as a perspective, we show briefly the mathematical models for spin-1 BEC, Bogoliubov excitation and BEC at finite temperature.
In this work, we consider the non-reactive fully elastic Boltzmann equations for mixtures in the diffusive scaling. We mainly use a Hilbert expansion of the distribution functions. After briefly recalling the H-theorem, the lower-order non trivial equality obtained from the Boltzmann equations leads to a linear functional equation in the velocity variable. This equation is solved thanks to the Fredholm alternative. Since we consider multicomponent mixtures, the classical techniques introduced by Grad cannot be applied, and we propose a new method to treat the terms involving particles with different masses.
Although there recently have been extensive studies on the perturbation theory of the angular non-cutoff Boltzmann equation (cf.  and ), it remains mathematically unknown when there is a self-consistent Lorentz force coupled with the Maxwell equations in the nonrelativistic approximation. In the paper, for perturbative initial data with suitable regularity and integrability, we establish the large time stability of solutions to the Cauchy problem of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system with physical angular non-cutoff intermolecular collisions including the inverse power law potentials, and also obtain as a byproduct the convergence rates of solutions. The proof is based on a new time-velocity weighted energy method with two key technical parts: one is to introduce the exponentially weighted estimates into the non-cutoff Boltzmann operator and the other to design a delicate temporal energy $X(t)$-norm to obtain its uniform bound. The result also extends the case of the hard sphere model considered by Guo [Invent. Math. 153(3): 593--630 (2003)] to the general collision potentials.
We deal with the unique global strong solution or classical solution to the Cauchy problem of the 2D Stokes approximation equations for the compressible flows with the density being some positive constant on the far field for arbitrarily large initial data, which may contain vacuum states. First, we prove that the density is bounded from above independently of time. Secondly, we show that if the initial density contains vacuum at least at one point, then the global strong (or classical) solution must blow up as time goes to infinity.
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