Kinetic and Related Models
June 2018 , Volume 11 , Issue 3
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Motion of a rigid body immersed in a semi-infinite expanse of free molecular gas in a
This paper concerns the low Mach number limit of weak solutions to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for isentropic fluids in a bounded domain with a Navier-slip boundary condition. In [
In this paper we study a kinetic model for pedestrians, who are assumed to adapt their motion towards a desired direction while avoiding collisions with others by stepping aside. These minimal microscopic interaction rules lead to complex emergent macroscopic phenomena, such as velocity alignment in unidirectional flows and lane or stripe formation in bidirectional flows. We start by discussing collision avoidance mechanisms at the microscopic scale, then we study the corresponding Boltzmann-type kinetic description and its hydrodynamic mean-field approximation in the grazing collision limit. In the spatially homogeneous case we prove directional alignment under specific conditions on the sidestepping rules for both the collisional and the mean-field model. In the spatially inhomogeneous case we illustrate, by means of various numerical experiments, the rich dynamics that the proposed model is able to reproduce.
Vlasov kinetic theory is extended by adopting an extra one particle distribution function as an additional state variable characterizing the micro-turbulence internal structure. The extended Vlasov equation keeps the reversibility, the Hamiltonian structure, and the entropy conservation of the original Vlasov equation. In the setting of the extended Vlasov theory we then argue that the Fokker-Planck type damping in the velocity dependence of the extra distribution function induces the Landau damping. The same type of extension is made also in the setting of fluid mechanics.
In order to solve the Boltzmann equation numerically, in the present work, we propose a new model equation to approximate the Boltzmann equation without angular cutoff. Here the approximate equation incorporates Boltzmann collision operator with angular cutoff and the Landau collision operator. As a first step, we prove the well-posedness theory for our approximate equation. Then in the next step we show the error estimate between the solutions to the approximate equation and the original equation. Compared to the standard angular cutoff approximation method, our method results in higher order of accuracy.
We study the spatially homogeneous Boltzmann equation for Maxwell molecules, and its 1-dimensional model, the Kac equation. We prove propagation in time of stretched exponential moments of their weak solutions, both for the angular cutoff and the angular non-cutoff case. The order of the stretched exponential moments in question depends on the singularity rate of the angular kernel of the Boltzmann and the Kac equation. One of the main tools we use are Mittag-Leffler moments, which generalize the exponential ones.
We consider an unpinned chain of harmonic oscillators with periodic boundary conditions, whose dynamics is perturbed by a random flip of the sign of the velocities. The dynamics conserves the total volume (or elongation) and the total energy of the system. We prove that in a diffusive space-time scaling limit the profiles corresponding to the two conserved quantities converge to the solution of a diffusive system of differential equations. While the elongation follows a simple autonomous linear diffusive equation, the evolution of the energy depends on the gradient of the square of the elongation.
We consider a system of N particles interacting via a short-range smooth potential, in a weak-coupling regime. This means that the number of particles
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