Journal of Geometric Mechanics
June 2013 , Volume 5 , Issue 2
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Different types of transformations of a dynamical system, that are compatible with the Hamiltonian structure, are discussed making use of a geometric formalism. Firstly, the case of canonoid transformations is studied with great detail and then the properties of master symmetries are also analyzed. The relations between the existence of constants of motion and the properties of canonoid symmetries is discussed making use of a family of boundary and coboundary operators.
Although conservative Hamiltonian systems with constraints can be formulated in terms of Dirac structures, a more general framework is necessary to cover also dissipative systems such as gradient and metriplectic systems with constraints. We define Leibniz-Dirac structures which lead to a natural generalization of Dirac and Riemannian structures, for instance. From modeling point of view, Leibniz-Dirac structures make it easy to formulate implicit dissipative Hamiltonian systems. We give their exact characterization in terms of vector bundle maps from the tangent bundle to the cotangent bundle and vice verse. Physical systems which can be formulated in terms of Leibniz-Dirac structures are discussed.
A new concept of Loday algebroid (and its pure algebraic version -- Loday pseudoalgebra) is proposed and discussed in comparison with other similar structures present in the literature. The structure of a Loday pseudoalgebra and its natural reduction to a Lie pseudoalgebra is studied. Further, Loday algebroids are interpreted as homological vector fields on a `supercommutative manifold' associated with a shuffle product and the corresponding Cartan calculus is introduced. Several examples, including Courant algebroids, Grassmann-Dorfman and twisted Courant-Dorfman brackets, as well as algebroids induced by Nambu-Poisson structures, are given.
We compute the semi-global symplectic invariants near the hyperbolic equilibrium points of the Euler top. The Birkhoff normal form at the hyperbolic point is computed using Lie series. The actions near the hyperbolic point are found using Frobenius expansion of its Picard-Fuchs equation. We show that the Birkhoff normal form can also be found by inverting the regular solution of the Picard-Fuchs equation. Composition of the singular action integral with the inverse of the Birkhoff normal form gives the semi-global symplectic invariant. Finally, we discuss the convergence of these invariants and show that in a neighbourhood of the separatrix the pendulum is not symplectically equivalent to any Euler top.
Motivated by the recent connection between nonholonomic integrable systems and twisted Poisson manifolds made in , this paper investigates the global theory of integrable Hamiltonian systems on almost symplectic manifolds as an initial step to understand Hamiltonian integrability on twisted Poisson (and Dirac) manifolds. Non-commutative integrable Hamiltonian systems on almost symplectic manifolds were first defined in , which proved existence of local generalised action-angle coordinates in the spirit of the Liouville-Arnol'd theorem. In analogy with their symplectic counterpart, these systems can be described globally by twisted isotropic realisations of twisted Poisson manifolds, a special case of symplectic realisations of twisted Dirac structures considered in . This paper classifies twisted isotropic realisations up to smooth isomorphism and provides a cohomological obstruction to the construction of these objects, generalising some of the main results of .
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