ISSN:

1941-4889

eISSN:

1941-4897

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## Journal of Geometric Mechanics

September 2020 , Volume 12 , Issue 3

Special Issue dedicated to James Montaldi

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The classical equations of the Newtonian 3-body problem do not only define the familiar 3-dimensional motions. The dimension of the motion may also be 4, and cannot be higher. We prove that in dimension 4, for three arbitrary positive masses, and for an arbitrary value (of rank 4) of the angular momentum, the energy possesses a minimum, which corresponds to a motion of relative equilibrium which is Lyapunov stable when considered as an equilibrium of the reduced problem. The nearby motions are nonsingular and bounded for all time. We also describe the full family of relative equilibria, and show that its image by the energy-momentum map presents cusps and other interesting features.

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On a Poisson foliation equipped with a canonical and cotangential action of a compact Lie group, we describe the averaging method for Poisson connections. In this context, we generalize some previous results on Hannay-Berry connections for Hamiltonian and locally Hamiltonian actions on Poisson fiber bundles. Our main application of the averaging method for connections is the construction of invariant Dirac structures parametrized by the 2-cocycles of the de Rham-Casimir complex of the Poisson foliation.

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We consider a family of birational maps

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The 3-body problem in

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The connection between the dynamics in relative periodic orbits of vector fields with noncompact symmetry groups and periodic control for the class of control systems on Lie groups known as '(robotic) locomotion systems' is well known, and has led to the identification of (geometric) phases. We take an approach which is complementary to the existing ones, advocating the relevance——for trajectory generation in these control systems——of the *qualitative* properties of the dynamics in relative periodic orbits. There are two particularly important features. One is that motions in relative periodic orbits of noncompact groups can only be of two types: either they are quasi-periodic, or they leave any compact set as

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Normal modes are intimately related to the quadratic approximation of a potential at its hyperbolic equilibria. Here we extend the notion to the case where the Taylor expansion for the potential at a critical point starts with higher order terms, and show that such an extension shares some of the properties of standard normal modes. Some symmetric examples are considered in detail.

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The concept of centre of mass of two particles in 2D spaces of constant Gaussian curvature is discussed by recalling the notion of "relativistic rule of lever" introduced by Galperin [*Comm. Math. Phys.* **154** (1993), 63–84), and comparing it with two other definitions of centre of mass that arise naturally on the treatment of the 2-body problem in spaces of constant curvature: firstly as the collision point of particles that are initially at rest, and secondly as the centre of rotation of steady rotation solutions. It is shown that if the particles have distinct masses then these definitions are equivalent only if the curvature vanishes and instead lead to three different notions of centre of mass in the general case.

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We characterize completely integrable Hamiltonian systems inducing an effective Hamiltonian torus action as systems with zero transport costs w.r.t. the time-

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We investigate the elementary rearrangements of energy bands in slow-fast one-parameter families of systems whose fast subsystem possesses a half-integer spin. Beginning with a simple case without any time-reversal symmetries, we analyze and compare increasingly sophisticated model Hamiltonians with these symmetries. The models are inspired by the time-reversal modification of the Berry phase setup which uses a family of quadratic spin-quadrupole Hamiltonians of Mead [Phys. Rev. Lett. **59**, 161–164 (1987)] and Avron *et al* [Commun. Math. Phys. **124**(4), 595–627 (1989)]. An explicit correspondence between the typical quantum energy level patterns in the energy band rearrangements of the finite particle systems with compact slow phase space and those of the Dirac oscillator is found in the limit of linearization near the conical degeneracy point of the semi-quantum eigenvalues.

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James Montaldi's expertises span many areas on pure and applied mathematics. I will discuss here just one, his contributions to the motion of point vortices, specially the role of symmetries in the bifurcations and stability of equilibrium configurations in surfaces of *constant curvature*. This approach leads, for instance, to a very elegant proof of a classical result, the nonlinear stability of Thompson's regular heptagon in the plane. Here the plane appears "in passing", just as the transition between positive and negative curvatures.

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We survey several aspects of the qualitative dynamics around Hamiltonian relative equilibria. We pay special attention to the role of continuous singularities and its effect in their stability, persistence and bifurcations. Our approach is semi-global using extensively the Hamiltonian tube of Marle, Guillemin and Sternberg.

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A complete geometric classification of symmetries of autonomous Hamiltonian systems is established; explaining how to obtain their associated conserved quantities in all cases. In particular, first we review well-known results and properties about the symmetries of the Hamiltonian and of the symplectic form and then some new kinds of non-symplectic symmetries and their conserved quantities are introduced and studied.

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